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 PostPosted: Thu Dec 09, 2010 10:48 am  Report this post 
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Hari OM. Pranams.

Verse 44:

भौगेश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां तयापहृतचेतसाम् ।
व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते ।। (४४)

bhogaisvarya-prasaktanam tayapahrta-cetasam
vyavasayatmika buddhih samadhau na vidhiyate (44)

भौगेश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां - of the people who cling to pleasure and Lordship, तया - by that, अपहृतचेतसाम् - whose minds are drawn away, व्यवसायात्मिका - determinate, बुद्धिः - reason, समाधौ - in samadhi, न - not, विधीयते - is fixed.

44. For, those who cling to joy and Lordship, whose minds are drawn away by such teaching, are neither determinate and resolute nor are they fit for steady meditation and SAMADHI.

Vyasa's vigorous criticism is reflected in the words of Krishna when he characterises the ritualistic portion of the Vedas as "the flowery words of the unwise." The ritualistic sections of the Vedas address those who are deeply attached to pleasure and power, whose discriminative power --- the capacity to distinguish the Real from the Unreal --- is stolen away from them, for they are concerned about the results and rewards of Karma. They were involved in the ritualism as such; not concerned with the Higher, to reach which these are but the means.

Thus, as an expounder of the TRANSCENDENTAL and the INFINITE, Krishna is here laughing at those who mistake the means for the end; the ritualistic portion is the means and the Vedantic portion dealing with realisation through meditation is the end. The Karma Kanda prepares the mind to a single-pointedness, when it is pursued without specific desires (Nishkama), and such a prepared mind alone is fit for steady contemplation over the Upanishadic declarations.

The passage is concluded with the declaration that such persons, tossed about by their desires, shall never discover and experience of tranquillity in their inner life.

Verse 45:

त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन ।
निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् ।। (४५)

trai-gunya-visaya veda nistrai-gunyo bhavarjuna
nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho niryoga-ksema atmavan (45)

त्रैगुण्यविषया: - deal with the three attributes, वेदा: -the Vedas, निस्त्रैगुण्य: - without these three attributes, भव - be, अर्जुन - O Arjuna, निर्द्वन्द्व:- free from the pairs of opposites, नित्यसत्त्वस्थ: - ever remaining in the sattva (goodness), निर्योगक्षेम: - free from (the thought of)acquisition and preservation, आत्मवान् - established in the Self.

45. The VEDAS deal with the three attributes; be you above these three attributes (GUNAS) , O Arjuna, free yourself from the pairs-of-opposites, and ever remain in the SATTWA (goodness) , freed from all thoughts of acquisition and preservation, and be established in the Self.

The three inseparable gunas viz., unactivity (Sattwa), activity (Rajas) and inactivity (Tamas) always remain in the inner constitution of every living creature, in varying proportions. The mind and intellect are constituted of this triple-stuff. To go beyond these three temperaments is literally to go beyond the mind and thereby re-discover himself to be God.

The second line in the stanza gives us a very practical and direct method of transporting ourselves from the realm of imperfection to the boundless regions of Bliss and Beatitude. Earlier, Krishna had indicated how Arjuna should enter the field and wage the war. The same mental equanimity is being advised here in a different language. Krishna advises Arjuna to be free from all pairs-of-opposites (Dwandwas) and ever established in purity. To be established in purity (Sattwa) would, mean keeping ourselves least agitated, and so, least deluded in our perceptions of things and beings, and in our estimation of their true nature.

'Yoga' means 'to acquire' for purposes of possessing; and 'Kshema' means 'all efforts at preserving the acquired.' these two terms Yoga and Kshema encompass all our ego-centric activities motivated by selfish desires to acquire and, compelled by equally selfish wishes, to hoard and preserve what has been acquired. To renounce these two temperaments is to get away immediately from the two main fields that yield the poisonous harvest of extreme restlessness and sorrow in life. To detach ourselves from these by keeping a constant sense of awareness of our pure Divine Nature is the Path shown in the Geeta. Established in the Self, the individual-ego, ever pure and free from all anxieties, finds itself beyond the experiences of the world.


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 PostPosted: Thu Dec 09, 2010 11:01 am  Report this post 
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Hari Om. Pranams.

Here are the Verses for our discussion. Please post your thoughts, your study notes, reflections on these verses.

Offering this garland of verses to you O Krishna with Love and prostrations from all of us, please help us in our studies.
==========================================================================================================
Verse 42:

यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चित: |
वेदवादरता: पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिन: || ४२ ||
yam imam puspitam vacam pravadanty avipascitah
veda-vada-ratah partha nanyad astiti vadinah


यां - which, इमाम - this , पुष्पितां -flowery , वाचं - speech , प्रवदन्ति - utter , अविपश्चित: -the unwise , वेदवादरता: - taking pleasure in eulogising words of the Vedas , पार्थ -O Partha , न- not , अन्यत-other , अस्ति -is , इति -thus , वादिन: - saying

Flowery speech is uttered by the unwise, taking pleasure in eulogising words of the Vedas, O Partha, saying, " There is nothing else ".

Verse 43:

कामात्मान: स्वर्गपरा जन्मकर्मफलप्रदाम |
क्रियाविशेषबहुलाम भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति || ४३ ||
kamatmanah svarga-para janma-karma-phala-pradam
kriya-visesa-bahulam bhogaisvarya-gatim prati

कामात्मान: -full of desires, स्वर्गपरा: -with heaven as their highest goal, जन्मकर्मफलप्रदाम -leading to new births as a result of their works, क्रियाविशेषबहुलाम-exuberant with various specific actions, भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति - for the attainment of pleasure and lordship

Full of desires, having heaven as their goal, they utter flowery words which promise new birth as the reward of their actions, and prescribe various specific actions for the attainment of pleasure and Lordship.

Verse 44:

भौगेश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां तयापहृतचेतसाम् ।
व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते ।। (४४)

bhogaisvarya-prasaktanam tayapahrta-cetasam
vyavasayatmika buddhih samadhau na vidhiyate (44)

भौगेश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां - of the people who cling to pleasure and Lordship, तया - by that, अपहृतचेतसाम् - whose minds are drawn away, व्यवसायात्मिका - determinate, बुद्धिः - reason, समाधौ - in samadhi, न - not, विधीयते - is fixed.

For, those who cling to joy and Lordship, whose minds are drawn away by such teaching, are neither determinate and resolute nor are they fit for steady meditation and SAMADHI.

Vyasa's vigorous criticism is reflected in the words of Krishna when he characterises the ritualistic portion of the Vedas as "the flowery words of the unwise." The ritualistic sections of the Vedas address those who are deeply attached to pleasure and power, whose discriminative power --- the capacity to distinguish the Real from the Unreal --- is stolen away from them, for they are concerned about the results and rewards of Karma. They were involved in the ritualism as such; not concerned with the Higher, to reach which these are but the means.

Thus, as an expounder of the TRANSCENDENTAL and the INFINITE, Krishna is here laughing at those who mistake the means for the end; the ritualistic portion is the means and the Vedantic portion dealing with realisation through meditation is the end. The Karma Kanda prepares the mind to a single-pointedness, when it is pursued without specific desires (Nishkama), and such a prepared mind alone is fit for steady contemplation over the Upanishadic declarations.

The passage is concluded with the declaration that such persons, tossed about by their desires, shall never discover and experience of tranquillity in their inner life.

Verse 45:

त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन ।
निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् ।। (४५)
trai-gunya-visaya veda nistrai-gunyo bhavarjuna
nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho niryoga-ksema atmavan

त्रैगुण्यविषया: - deal with the three attributes, वेदा: -the Vedas, निस्त्रैगुण्य: - without these three attributes, भव - be, अर्जुन - O Arjuna, निर्द्वन्द्व:- free from the pairs of opposites, नित्यसत्त्वस्थ: - ever remaining in the sattva (goodness), निर्योगक्षेम: - free from (the thought of)acquisition and preservation, आत्मवान् - established in the Self.

The VEDAS deal with the three attributes; be you above these three attributes (GUNAS) , O Arjuna, free yourself from the pairs-of-opposites, and ever remain in the SATTWA (goodness) , freed from all thoughts of acquisition and preservation, and be established in the Self.

The three inseparable gunas viz., unactivity (Sattwa), activity (Rajas) and inactivity (Tamas) always remain in the inner constitution of every living creature, in varying proportions. The mind and intellect are constituted of this triple-stuff. To go beyond these three temperaments is literally to go beyond the mind and thereby re-discover himself to be God.

The second line in the stanza gives us a very practical and direct method of transporting ourselves from the realm of imperfection to the boundless regions of Bliss and Beatitude. Earlier, Krishna had indicated how Arjuna should enter the field and wage the war. The same mental equanimity is being advised here in a different language. Krishna advises Arjuna to be free from all pairs-of-opposites (Dwandwas) and ever established in purity. To be established in purity (Sattwa) would, mean keeping ourselves least agitated, and so, least deluded in our perceptions of things and beings, and in our estimation of their true nature.

'Yoga' means 'to acquire' for purposes of possessing; and 'Kshema' means 'all efforts at preserving the acquired.' these two terms Yoga and Kshema encompass all our ego-centric activities motivated by selfish desires to acquire and, compelled by equally selfish wishes, to hoard and preserve what has been acquired. To renounce these two temperaments is to get away immediately from the two main fields that yield the poisonous harvest of extreme restlessness and sorrow in life. To detach ourselves from these by keeping a constant sense of awareness of our pure Divine Nature is the Path shown in the Geeta. Established in the Self, the individual-ego, ever pure and free from all anxieties, finds itself beyond the experiences of the world.

Verse 46

यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः संप्लुतोदके ।
तावान्सर्वेषु वेदेषु ब्राह्मणस्य विजानतः ।। (४६)
yavan artha udapane sarvatah samplutodake
tavan sarvesu vedesu brahmanasya vijanatah

Yavan – as much, Arthah – use, Udapane- in the reservoir, Sarvatah – every where, Samplutodake- being flooded, Tavan – so much ( use), Sarvesu – in all,
Vedesu- in the Vedas, Brahmanasya – of the Brahmana, Vijanatah – of the knowing

To the brahmana who has known the Self, all the Vedas are of as much use as a reservoir of water in a place that is flooded.

For the enlightened, Vedic ritual is as useful as the water stored in a tank in the floods. As long as there is no flood, everyone will have to reach the tank to collect drinking water. Similarly, Veda is the only source of True Knowledge, and every one necessarily must go to the sacred scripture for knowledge. However, when the area is flooded, and the wells and the tanks have submerged, at that time the tank of water that used to be of some service is not useful.

Holy Gita Ready Reference:

Terms and Definitions:

Q. 45 Define "Yoga" and "Ksema".

Yoga and Ksema in their meaning include all the activities of every living being in the universe. These are the two urges which goad every one in all of one's activities. Yoga means to acquire for the purpose of possessing; and ksema means all efforts at preserving the acquired. Thus the two terms yoga and ksema encompass all our egocentric activities motivated by selfish desires to acquire and,compelled by equally selfish wishes, to hoard and preserve what has been acquired. ( 2.45)

Thoughts and Concepts:

Q. 44 What is the purpose of the practice of rituals?

The practice of rituals ( karma-kanda) makes the mind single pointed when it is pursued without specific desires ( niskama); such a prepared mind alone is fit for steady contemplation over the Upanisadic declarations ( 2.44)

Q. 45 How does one always remain established in purity ( nitya sattvastha)?

Sattva, the subtlest of the gunas, often becomes impure by its contact with the attachments and the consequent agitations(rajas) that attack the intellect with delusion and grief, and veil it from the right cognition of the real nature of things ( tamas). To be always established in purity( sattva) would therfore mean keeping ourselves least agitated, and so, least deluded in our perceptions of things and beings and in our estimation of their true nature. (2.45)

Verses for memorisation: 45 (All)

त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन ।
निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् ।।
trai-gunya-visaya veda nistrai-gunyo bhavarjuna
nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho niryoga-ksema atmavan


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 PostPosted: Fri Dec 10, 2010 11:29 pm  Report this post 
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Hari Om. Pranams.

I will be away till 3rd Jan. Umaji has graciously agreed to co-ordinate Gita Forum in my absence and Muruganji has graciously agreed to provide active support to Umaji with it. Thank you Umaji and Muruganji. Abhayji hopefully you will be back soon to join them.

Vanaja Amma, Kamalji, Meera ji, Vedaranganji ...hope to see your active participation in coming year. Thanks to one and all to keep the beautiful discussions on Bhagvad Gita going.

P.S. As and when, I get connectivity I will read and enjoy the ongoing discussions.


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 PostPosted: Sat Dec 11, 2010 8:55 am  Report this post 

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Hari Om Padmajaji,

Welcome back to Homeland Padmajaji...Enjoy your holidays. Looking forward to meeting you in person.

Regards,
Vanaja


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 PostPosted: Sat Dec 11, 2010 12:03 pm  Report this post 

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Hari Om. Pranam to all.

All the best to Padmajaji for her trip.

Reflections, thoughts on verses 42 to 46 and HGRR :

Rituals ( karma kandas ) in Vedas were mostly performed with some desire in mind. Even today, if some ( ritual ) vrat vaikalya is observed, mostly it is with some desire in the mind that God should bless us with as a reward for observing /performing that. When rituals are done with such desires in mind, the result whatever it maybe causes mind to be rippled, either with joy if the desire is satisfied or with sorrow, displeasure if the required result is not obtained.

The real purpose behind observing the rituals is to achieve the single pointedness of the mind, which is actually forgotten. Single pointedness of the mind can lead to thorough contemplation of the vedic declarations. The ultimate aim is to realize the Self and not the satisfaction of some petty materialistic desires.

To realize the Self, first mind should be free of dwandwa, pairs of opposites, pleasure, displeasure, sukha dukkha, hope despair etc. Such pairs cause mind to be agitated. Only calm and quiet mind can lead to peace of realization of Self. Delusions in the materialistic world will no doubt leave the mind in agitation.

Ordinarily, people are interested and involved in carrying out “yogkshema” – acquisition and preservation of the acquired things, whilst living their life, however, they get so engrossed in it and think that that is the only thing in life, without realizing that there is no end to it. And that very thing causes the mind delusions and agitations, which lead it away from peace and Self realization.

To remain in purity always, mind has to be single pointed, and sattva, raj, tam , these three gunas need to be transcended. Excessive sattva guna can also lead to egoistic behaviour and pride. Existence of ego indicates distancing from the Self.

Regards

Uma


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 PostPosted: Sat Dec 11, 2010 4:52 pm  Report this post 
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Hari OM

Padmajaji, Wish you a nice vacation and Happy New year.

Reflections on verse 42 -46.

In verses 42 and 43, Bagavan talks about those who are not clear about the end to be accomplished in life. They study and believe in the veracity of the Vedas, but miss the most important teaching of the Vedas namely the atmajnana. They believe in the capacity of a given ritual to produce a particular desirable result.

Verse 44 & 45 explains that well ascertained understanding does not take place in the mind of people who pursue pleasure and power exclusively. Those who are totally committed to bhoga and aisvarya are influenced by the flowery words that reveal the various karmas, the means for achiving different ends. In such people, the discriminative knowledge is so totally covered that nothing is clear. Without Viveka, confusion is endless.
Those who are committed to bhoga and aisvarya see the Veda as having only the three qualities as its subject matter, trigunya visaya, where as it has much more to teach. Krishna was saying that Arjuna has learned enough of the traigunya visaya part of the Veda and it is time for him to study the other part Vedanta.

The reason Bagavan asked Arjuna to go beyond those parts of the Veda dealing only with Samsara is given in the verse 46. For an enlightened brahmana, thinking and discriminative person, the portion of the Veda relating only to samsara is as useful as the water from a well when the entire countryside has been flooded. When the wells and ponds themselves are under water, we need not look to them for water.

Pranams


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 PostPosted: Mon Dec 13, 2010 8:27 pm  Report this post 

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Hari Om. Pranam to all.

Let's now take up Shlokas 47 to 50 for our study. Lord is explaining the two yogas to Arjuna in these verses.
Please post verse, word meaning and brief explanation from Pujya Gurudev's Gita commentary book for the assigned verses.

47-48 - Uma
49-50 Muruganji

Holy Gita Ready Reference:

Uma
Terms and Definitions: Q. 15, 16, 17
Selection for Reflection: - 13, 14

Muruganji
Thoughts and Concepts: Q. 22, 23, 24


Vanaja Amma, Kamalji, Meera ji, Vedaranganji, you all are welcome to contribute …any of the above sholkas or your thoughts, reflections upon them

Verses for memorisation: 47, 48, 50 (All)

Regards

uma


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 PostPosted: Wed Dec 15, 2010 4:19 pm  Report this post 
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Hari OM

Verse 49

Durena hyavaram karma buddhiyogad dhananjaya
Buddhau saranam anviccha krpanah phalahetavah

Durena hyavaram – far lower is indeed
Karma – Action (with motive)
Buddhiyogat – to yoga of wisdom
Dhananjaya – Oh Arjuna
Buddhau – in karma yoga
Saranam anviccha- Seek refuge
Krpanah – are wretched
Phalahetavah- those who are motivated by results
Far lower than the Yoga-of wisdom is action, O Dhananjaya. Seek thou refuge in wisdom; wretched are they whose motive is the “fruit”

Work done with a mind undisturbed by anxieties for the results is indeed superior to the work done by a dissipated mind, ever worrying over the results.

Verse 50

Buddhiyukto jahatiha, ubhe sukrtaduskrte
Tasmad yogaya yujyasya,yogah karmasu kausalam

Budhiyuktah – A karmayogi
Jahati ubhe – casts off both
Sukrtaduskrte – good deeds and evil deeds
Iha- here ( itself)
Tasmat – therefore
Yujyasva- devote
Yogaya- for yoga
Kausalam- skill
Karmasu – in action
Yogah – is yoga.

Endowed with the Wisdom of evenness of mind, one casts off in this life both good deeds and evil deeds; therefore, devote yourself to YOGA. Skill in action is Yoga.
One who has an evenness of temper accomplished by his perfect withdrawal from the realm of sentiments and emotions, and who is established in his resolute intellect, gets himself transported from the arena of both the good and the bad, merit and demerit.

Thoughts and Concepts

Q 22. “ Thy right is to work only, but never to its fruits”. Explain.
The fruit of an action, when one understands properly, is not anything different from the action itself. An action in the present when conditioned by a future-time appears as the fruit of the action. In fact, the action ends or fulfils only in its reaction, and the reaction is not anything different from the action; an action in the present defined in terms of a future moment is its reaction. Therefore, to worry over and get ourselves preoccupied with the anxieties for the rewards of actions is to escape from the dynamic present and to live in a future that is not yet born.! In short, the Lord’s advice here is a call to man not to waste his present moment in fruitless dreams and fears, but to bring his best- all the best in him- to the present and vitally live every moment, the promise being that the future shall take care of itself and shall provide the Karma yogin with achievements divine and accomplishments supreme. ( 2.47)

Q 23. Who is a real Karma Yogi?
A real Karma yogi is one who understands: a) that his concern is with action alone; b) that he has no concern over results c) that he should not entertain the motive of gaining a fixed fruit for a given action and d) that these ideas do not mean that he should sit back courting inaction. (2.47)

Q.24. What does giving up attachments mean?
To give up attachments means renouncing wrong imaginations, false expectations, day-dreams about the fruits of actions, anxieties for the results and fears for future calamities. ( 2.48)

Pranams


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 PostPosted: Thu Dec 16, 2010 10:45 am  Report this post 

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Hari Om. Pranam to all.

Posting from HGR Book

Terms and Conditions 15, 16, 17

15. What is meant by "Buddhi Yoga" ?

To keep the mind perfectly under control of the discriminative intellect and to live thus as a master of the inner and outer world is called "Buddhi Yoga " (2.49)

16. Who is "buddhi - yukta" ?

" Buddhi yukta" is one whose actions are all guided by a clear vision of his higher and diviner Goal (2.50 )

17. What are the two definitions of Yoga given by Shri Krishna in the second chapter ?
समत्वं योग उच्यते ॥
samtavam yoga uchyate

Evenness of mind is called Yoga (2.48 )
योग: कर्मसु कौशलं ॥
yogah karmasu kaushalam

Skill in action is Yoga (2.50 )

Selections for Reflections 13, 14

13. Unselfish work, performed in a spirit of dedication and ego less surrender, is the secret method of exhausting our vasana store. Such a mind alone, purged clean, can reflect the Self clearly and come to discover the eternal God-hood. (2.49 )

14. Man is the supreme creature in the kingdom of the living, because of rational capacities of his discriminative intellect. As long as the man does not utilise this special equipment that he possesses he cannot claim his heritage as man. (2.50 )

Regards

Uma


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 PostPosted: Fri Dec 17, 2010 7:25 pm  Report this post 

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Hari Om. Pranam to all.

Posting verses 47, 48

कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन |
मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते संगो s स्त्वकर्माणि || ४७ ||

karmanyevaadhikaaraste ma phaleshukadachan
ma karmaphalheturbhur ma te sangostvakarmaNi

कर्माणि -in work, एव -only , अधिकार: -right , ते -they , मा -not , फलेषु -in the fruits , कदाचन -at any time , मा -not , कर्मफलहेतुर्भू: - let not the fruits of action be thy motive -, मा -not , ते - thy , संगा : -attachement , अस्तु -let (there) be , अकर्मणि - in inaction

The right is to work only, but never to its fruits, let not the fruit of action be thy motive, nor let thy attachement be to inaction.

Here Krishna is explaining the philosophy of art of living to Arjuna. Worrying over the results of the action, spoils the action as well as mental equanimity. Skillful action is bound to give results in the future, hence the entire attention should be on performing it with efficiency to the fullest extent possible, without worrying over what fruit it will yield. Living thus, one becomes free of mental occupations and the work itself becomes the reward.


योगस्थ: कुरु कर्माणि संगं त्यक्त्वा धनंजय |
सिद्धयसिद्धयो: समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते || ४८ ||

yogastha kuru karmani sangam tyaktava dhananjaya
siddhyasiddhyo samo bhutva samatvam yoga uchyate

योगस्थ : -steadfast in yoga , कुरु -perform , कर्माणि -action , संग -attachment , त्यक्त्वा -having abandoned , धनंजय -O Dhananjay , सिद्धयसिद्धयो : - in success and failure , सम:- the same , भूत्वा -having become , समत्वं -evenness of mind , योग :-yoga , उच्यते - is called

Perform action, O Dhananjaya, being steadfast in yoga, abandoning attachment and balanced in success and failure. Evenness of mind is called yoga.

Regards

Uma


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Hari Om. Pranam to all.

Here are the Verses for our discussion. Please post your thoughts, your study notes, reflections on these verses.

Offering this garland of verses to you O Krishna with Love and prostrations from all of us, please help us in our studies.
==========================================================================================================



कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन |
मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते संगो s स्त्वकर्माणि || ४७ ||

karmanyevaadhikaaraste ma phaleshukadachan
ma karmaphalheturbhur ma te sangostvakarmaNi

कर्माणि -in work, एव -only , अधिकार: -right , ते -they , मा -not , फलेषु -in the fruits , कदाचन -at any time , मा -not , कर्मफलहेतुर्भू: - let not the fruits of action be thy motive -, मा -not , ते - thy , संगा : -attachement , अस्तु -let (there) be , अकर्मणि - in inaction

The right is to work only, but never to its fruits, let not the fruit of action be thy motive, nor let thy attachement be to inaction.

Here Krishna is explaining the philosophy of art of living to Arjuna. Worrying over the results of the action, spoils the action as well as mental equanimity. Skillful action is bound to give results in the future, hence the entire attention should be on performing it with efficiency to the fullest extent possible, without worrying over what fruit it will yield. Living thus, one becomes free of mental occupations and the work itself becomes the reward.


योगस्थ: कुरु कर्माणि संगं त्यक्त्वा धनंजय |
सिद्धयसिद्धयो: समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते || ४८ ||

yogastha kuru karmani sangam tyaktava dhananjaya
siddhyasiddhyo samo bhutva samatvam yoga uchyate

योगस्थ : -steadfast in yoga , कुरु -perform , कर्माणि -action , संग -attachment , त्यक्त्वा -having abandoned , धनंजय -O Dhananjay , सिद्धयसिद्धयो : - in success and failure , सम:- the same , भूत्वा -having become , समत्वं -evenness of mind , योग :-yoga , उच्यते - is called

Perform action, O Dhananjaya, being steadfast in yoga, abandoning attachment and balanced in success and failure. Evenness of mind is called yoga.

दूरेण ह्यवरं कर्म बुद्धियोगाध्दनन्जय |
बुध्दौ शरणमन्विच्छ कृपणा: फलहेतव: || 49 ||

Durena hyavaram karma buddhiyogad dhananjaya
Buddhau saranam anviccha krpanah phalahetavah

दूरेण -by far , हि -indeed , अवरं -inferior , कर्म-action of work, बुद्धियोगात -than the yoga of wisdom, धनंजय -O Dhananjay , बुध्दौ -in wisdom, शरणं -refuge , अन्विच्छ -seek, कृपण : -wreched, फलहेतव: -seekers after fruits

Far lower than the Yoga of wisdom is action, O Dhananjaya. Seek thou refuge in wisdom, wreched are they whose motive is the fruit.

Work done with a mind undisturbed by anxieties for the results is indeed superior to the work done by a dissipated mind, ever worrying over the results.


बुद्धियुक्तो जहातीह उभे सुकृतदुष्कृते |
तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योग: कर्मसु कौशलं || 50 ||

Buddhiyukto jahatiha, ubhe sukrtaduskrte
Tasmad yogaya yujyasya,yogah karmasu kausalam


बुद्धियुक्तो -endowed with wisdom, जहाति- casts off , इह -in this life, उभे -both , सुकृतदुष्कृते -good and evil deeds , तस्मात -therefore, योगाय -to yoga , युज्यस्व -devote thyself , योग: -yoga , कर्मसु -in actions , कौशलं -skill

Endowed with the Wisdom of evenness of mind, one casts off in this life both good deeds and evil deeds; therefore, devote yourself to YOGA. Skill in action is Yoga.

One who has an evenness of temper accomplished by his perfect withdrawal from the realm of sentiments and emotions, and who is established in his resolute intellect, gets himself transported from the arena of both the good and the bad, merit and demerit.


Holy Gita Reference Book

Terms and Conditions 15, 16, 17

15. What is meant by "Buddhi Yoga" ?

To keep the mind perfectly under control of the discriminative intellect and to live thus as a master of the inner and outer world is called "Buddhi Yoga " (2.49)

16. Who is "buddhi - yukta" ?

" Buddhi yukta" is one whose actions are all guided by a clear vision of his higher and diviner Goal (2.50 )

17. What are the two definitions of Yoga given by Shri Krishna in the second chapter ?
समत्वं योग उच्यते ॥
samtavam yoga uchyate

Evenness of mind is called Yoga (2.48 )
योग: कर्मसु कौशलं ॥
yogah karmasu kaushalam

Skill in action is Yoga (2.50 )

Thoughts and Concepts

Q 22. “ Thy right is to work only, but never to its fruits”. Explain.
The fruit of an action, when one understands properly, is not anything different from the action itself. An action in the present when conditioned by a future-time appears as the fruit of the action. In fact, the action ends or fulfils only in its reaction, and the reaction is not anything different from the action; an action in the present defined in terms of a future moment is its reaction. Therefore, to worry over and get ourselves preoccupied with the anxieties for the rewards of actions is to escape from the dynamic present and to live in a future that is not yet born.! In short, the Lord’s advice here is a call to man not to waste his present moment in fruitless dreams and fears, but to bring his best- all the best in him- to the present and vitally live every moment, the promise being that the future shall take care of itself and shall provide the Karma yogin with achievements divine and accomplishments supreme. ( 2.47)

Q 23. Who is a real Karma Yogi?
A real Karma yogi is one who understands: a) that his concern is with action alone; b) that he has no concern over results c) that he should not entertain the motive of gaining a fixed fruit for a given action and d) that these ideas do not mean that he should sit back courting inaction. (2.47)

Q.24. What does giving up attachments mean?
To give up attachments means renouncing wrong imaginations, false expectations, day-dreams about the fruits of actions, anxieties for the results and fears for future calamities. ( 2.48)



Selections for Reflections 13, 14

13. Unselfish work, performed in a spirit of dedication and ego less surrender, is the secret method of exhausting our vasana store. Such a mind alone, purged clean, can reflect the Self clearly and come to discover the eternal God-hood. (2.49 )

14. Man is the supreme creature in the kingdom of the living, because of rational capacities of his discriminative intellect. As long as the man does not utilise this special equipment that he possesses he cannot claim his heritage as man. (2.50 )

Verses for memorisation: 47, 48, 50 (All)


कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन |
मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते संगो s स्त्वकर्माणि || ४७ ||

karmanyevaadhikaaraste ma phaleshukadachan
ma karmaphalheturbhur ma te sangostvakarmaNi

योगस्थ: कुरु कर्माणि संगं त्यक्त्वा धनंजय |
सिद्धयसिद्धयो: समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते || ४८ ||

yogastha kuru karmani sangam tyaktava dhananjaya
siddhyasiddhyo samo bhutva samatvam yoga uchyate

बुद्धियुक्तो जहातीह उभे सुकृतदुष्कृते |
तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योग: कर्मसु कौशलं || 50 ||

Buddhiyukto jahatiha, ubhe sukrtaduskrte
Tasmad yogaya yujyasya,yogah karmasu kausalam



Regards
Uma


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 PostPosted: Fri Dec 24, 2010 10:12 am  Report this post 

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Hari Om. Pranam to all.

Thoughts and Reflections on verses 47 to 50 and HGRR book

These stanzas are extremely important and I wish Padmajaji was here to explain and comment on them. Request Padmajaji to comment upon them as soon as she is back.

Vanajaji, Vedrangaji, Kamalji and Meeraji , waiting for your reflections on the above.

Abhayaji, please do post whenever you are back.

Muruganaji, awaiting for your thoughts.

In the above verses, two yogas have been explained by Krishna to Arjuna. One is “ Evenness of mind is Yoga” and the other is “ Skill in action is Yoga”. Both are interlinked.

Whenever we do /perform certain action, our attention is most of the time riveted upon the goal. This creates disturbance in the mind..anxiety as to what will happen in future, fear whether the set goal will be achieved or not, worry as to what can one do if the aim is not fulfilled…so many emotions rise up simultaneously and created disturbance in the mind and then the mind cannot concentrate or work peacefully. This in turn, reflects in the action undertaken and then becomes hard to do that action skillfully. This makes it difficult to achieve the set goal.

In these stanzas, it has been advised that the attention should be on performing the action, doing it skillfully, to the best of our abilities without worrying about the fruit such action will yield in future. If we behave in such a manner then the success is guaranteed.

Also, it has been stated that “Evenness of mind is Yoga”. If the set goal is not achieved, we feel unhappy, disturbed, we lose our determination and become frustrated and land ourselves into a situation which will never make us achieve our goal. Pleasure and pain are two sides of the same coin and not to lose equanimity in all the circumstances, has been advised here.

All this discussion raises the following questions in the mind :

1. It is said that unless one sets some goals..maybe higher and higher ones…and strives for them, one cannot progress. Even in spiritual practices, one has a goal of Self Realisation. How does one co relate this with the advice in the above stanzas ?
2. How can one achieve the evenness of the mind ? What could be the tiny steps that would go for achieving this ?

Request everyone to ponder over this and put their thoughts…


Regards
Uma


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 PostPosted: Sat Dec 25, 2010 12:52 am  Report this post 
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Hari OM

Reflections on Verse 47 to 50.

There are three verses to be memorized out of these 4 verses show the importance of these verses in the scheme of Karma yoga.

The Karma yoga that Bagavan is praising is defined in two ways. The first is evenness of the mind is called karma yoga, samatvam yoga uchyate. The second is, discretion in action is called karma yoga, yoga karmasu kausalam. Samatva and kausala are defining words for karma yoga. Bagavan also makes it clear that karma yoga in no way implies the avoidance of action ( due to fear of failure or not getting the desired results)

With reference to actions, we have a choice. We can do it, we need not do it or we can do it differently This capacity to do, not to do and to do it differently makes us a karma adhikari. But with reference to the results of action we have no choice what so ever. The results can fall into any one of these four categories – more than we want, less than we want , the opposite of what we want or exactly what we want.

We are merely the cause of action, karma-hetu, not the results of action, karma phala hetu. Given this fact, the most appropriate thing to do is to take whatever results comes with an even attitude, samatva, as a Prasad from Isvara. Once this prasada buddhi is achieved, there is nothing really to complain about the results and have a sense of failure. This pragmatic approach and recognition of the fact brings in more objectivity in us.

Bagavan redicules those who perform actions only under the spell of one’s raga dveshas as krpanahs, misers. When a person who is endowed with intellect, buddhi, does not use it effectively by resorting to buddhi yoga or karma yoga, he becomes a miser ( who does not know how to spend his wealth effectively).

Yogah karmasu kausalam – kausalam denotes discretion in one’s choice of karma. One’s choice of karma should be in keeping with certain norms, according to law of dharma. To be in harmony with the world, with what is to be done, with the law of dharma that governs all karma, is karma yoga – yogah karmasu kausalam. When we choose our actions as per law of dharma, then our actions become an archana to Isvara. This Isvara arpana attitude results in purification of mind which is necessary for gaining self knowledge.

Pranams


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Hari OM

Thank you for the interesting questions, Umaji.

Q1. It is said that unless one sets some goals,maybe higher and higher ones…and strives for them, one cannot progress. Even in spiritual practices, one has a goal of Self Realisation. How does one co relate this with the advice in the above stanzas ?
2. How can one achieve the evenness of the mind ? What could be the tiny steps that would go for achieving this ?

Goal setting is an essential part of any action and as such there is no issue with the goal setting so long as it is realistic. Without a goal or destination in mind in any endeavor, be it worldly outward journey or inward spiritual journey, one cannot be motivated to perform an action.

What Bagavan explains as “ samatvam yoga uchyate” (evenness or sameness of mind is yoga) is simply an empirical and pragmatic attitude towards the results.

Water boils at 100 degrees centigrade is a statement of fact. Here, also, with reference to actions and their results, the statement “ Your choice is only in action, never in the results thereof, karmani eva adhikarah te, ma phalesu kadacana”, is a statement of fact.

Samatva means sameness. Where is the focus point for this Sameness? We need to analyze whether it is on the a) karma or b) the results or c) the goals?

Sameness cannot be possible in the karma itself because we cannot do the same karma during the entire day, day after day, throughout our entire life time. Different karmas are performed for different results, karmaphalas; Therefore sameness is not focused on the results. Every karma is goal based and therefore goal also can not be the same. We do different karmas because we want to achieve different goals.

Thus, samatva , sameness is not in the karma, its results or the goals upon which the karma is based. Samatva can only be with reference to” OUR ATTITUDE CONCERNING THE RESULTS OF ACTION”.

When we understand the fact that we are not the authors of the results, we automatically recognize the presence of Isvara as Karma Phala daataa. We accept the results as Isvara Prasad. This gives us objectivity and freedom to perform the right actions with appropriate goals, without any mental PRESSURE on the RESULTS.

How to achieve this objectivity, sameness or samatvam is the next key question.

Recognition of Isvara as Karma Phala daataa is the best way to achieve samatvam.

We have to have right goals and to achieve these goals we have to undertake right activities which produce certain results, which are not always as per our goals since we are not the author of results. The results come from Isvara, which can be equal to, less than, more than or totally opposite to our goals. When we accept Isvara as the karma phala daataa, the giver of fruits of action, we get a religious attitude, the attitude of a devotee, a bhakta.

Converting a karma phala in to a prasada is purely a recognition that it comes from the Lord. Once everything is a prasada, I have nothing to complain about. I have only something to learn. If it is exactly what I wanted, opposite to what I wanted or different from what I wanted, it is still Prasada from my Lord. As every karma phala comes, there is sameness in my reception of it.

Pranams


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Hari OM

Continuing on the question of how to achieve Samatvam, as per the guidance of Pujya Guruji, the First key step is to assimilate the knowledge “samatvam yoga uchyate”. The author for the results of actions is Lord, manifesting in the form of Law of Dharma and Karma. Such Knowledge that is internalized will spring into action spontaneously.

2. Equanimity towards Material objects: We need to understand the unique value of each object and use it accordingly. All material objects have a place in the scheme of our lives and every object has its importance and value. We must recognize this and respect everything. While gold is more precious than stones, stones are useful for building a house and gold cannot be used for this purpose. A job that can be done by a needle cannot be done by a sword.

3. Equanimity towards Experiences: We need to maintain your poise through dual extremes of experiences. Here, we need to understand that equanimity means freedom from our personal likes and dislikes. If we neutralize our likes and dislikes, then we can remain stable in all situations. To neutralize the likes and dislikes, devotion to the Lord is the key solution. A devotee sees everything as God’s will and he is at peace. No happening in life, pleasant or unpleasant can agitate him. Some people consider all that happens in life as a result of their own past karmas. A person who has gained Vedantic vision, says that all these are only appearances. The Self alone is real. He abides in that knowledge and accepts all things that come and go.

4. Equanimity towards People: We need to accept every one as they are and relate to them in the appropriate way. Every person with his characteristics is a part of the creation and has a role to play. We have to learn to live with them; learn to accept every individual per se, without agonizing over why that person is the way he or she is. In a garden, where there are different flowers, each one has a unique fragrance and we do not demand that all of them should smell like Jasmine.

Constant Abhyasa on the above lines, although difficult in the initial stages, is sure to bring Sama Dharshanam in day to day life.

Pranams


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 PostPosted: Tue Dec 28, 2010 9:48 am  Report this post 

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Hari Om. Pranam to all

Excellent post, Muruganji. Thank you very much for posting this.

Constant abhyas by way of reading, rereading, pondering over what has been read and ultimately practising or at least trying to practise that in life would be the ideal way.

No need to write further after Muruganji’s brilliant post, still sharing a few thoughts.

Even though goals essentially should be set in the beginning, before commencement of the action, once the action starts, it should be the point of attention. Action, once the path is chalked out, should be carried out religiously, without fail and to the best of our abilities. Attention on the goal would deviate attention from the action which can lead to failure.

It is indeed difficult to practice “samtva” in life and the only key is “abhyas” and “devotion”, as Muruganji has narrated in his post.

Would love to hear others’ thoughts / reflections on this and eagerly awaiting Padmajaji’s arrival to hear her on this issue.

Regards

Uma


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 PostPosted: Fri Dec 31, 2010 5:17 pm  Report this post 

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Hari Om. Pranam to all.

Let's now take up Shlokas 51 to 54 for our study.
Please post verse, word meaning and brief explanation from Pujya Gurudev's Gita commentary book for the assigned verses.

51-52 Muruganji
53-54 - Uma

Holy Gita Ready Reference:

Uma
Terms and Definitions: Q. 18, 19

Muruganji
Thoughts and Concepts: Q. 26, 27

Verses for memorisation: 54 (All)

Regards

uma


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 PostPosted: Sun Jan 02, 2011 8:04 pm  Report this post 

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Hari Om. Pranam to all.

Posting verses 53 and 54

श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला |
समाधावचला बुद्धिस्तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि || ५३ ||

shrutivipratipanna te yadaa sthaysati nischala
samaadhavachala buddhistadaa yogamvaapsyasi

श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना -perplexed by what you have heard, ते -your , यदा -when ,स्थास्यति -shall stand , निश्चला -immovable , समाधौ -in the self , अचला -steady , बुद्धि :-intellect , तदा -then , योगं -Self realisation, अवाप्स्यसि -you shall attain

When one's intellect has the steady equipoise, undisturbed by the experiences that reach the subtle body through its sense organs, then that individual is said to have attained yoga.

The word "heard" is not to be taken literally and should include all experiences from all sense organs.

Even in the midst of all sensuousness and even while all sense organs are letting in a flood of stimuli, the inner serenity and equipoise is maintained, than yoga is said to have been attained.


अर्जुन उवाच
स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव |
स्थितधी: किं प्रभाषेत किमासीत व्रजेत किं ||५४ ||

sthitapradnyasya kaa bhaashaa samaadhisthasya keshava
sthitadhi : kim prabhaashet kimaaseet vrajet kim
स्थितप्रज्ञस्य -of the sage of steady wisdom, का - what, भाषा - description, समाधिस्थस्य - of the man (merged ) in the superconscious state ,केशव - O Keshava, स्थितधी : -the sage of steady wisdom, का - what (how ), प्रभाषेत - talks, किं -what (how ), आसीत -sits , व्रजेत -walks , किं -what (how )

Arjuna said

What, O Keshava, is the description of him who has steady wisdom, who is merged in the Super conscious state ? How does one of steady wisdom speak, how does he sit, how does he walk ?

Intrigued by the description of the Karma Yogi, Arjuna is asking Krishna , how does a karma yogi appears, how he acts, how he speaks. In fact, Arjuna's question is double forked. He is asking about the a) description of the state of mind in a man of realisation and b) explanation as to how such self realisation experience will influence his actions whilst interacting with the outer world.

Regards

Uma


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 PostPosted: Tue Jan 04, 2011 12:38 pm  Report this post 

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Hari Om

Enjoying reading and learning through this enlightening discussion.
Happy, Peaceful and Blissful New Year to all devotees.

Pranams,
Vanaja


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Hari OM

Wish you all a very happy 2011.

Verse 51
Karmajam buddhiyukta hi phalam tyaktva manishinah
Janma bandha vinirmuktah padam gachhantyanamayam
karmajam – born of action
Budhiyuktah – with knowledge
Hi- indeed
Phalam – the fruit
Tyaktva- having abandoned
Manisinah – the wise
Janmabandha- vinir muktah – freed from the chains of birth
Padam-the state
Gacchanti – go
Anamayam- beyond evil
The wise, with knowledge, having given up the fruits of their actions, freed from the chains of birth, go to the State which is beyond all evil.
The wise, meaning those who know the art of true living, undertake all work, maintaining in themselves the full evenness of mind, and thus abandon all anxieties for the fruits of their actions. These two conditions, under which the
wise work, bring out fully the picture of an individual who acts renouncing both ego and ego motivated desires.

Verse 52:
yada te mohakalilam buddhir-vyatitarisyati
Tada gantasi nirvedam srotavyasya srutasya ca
Yada- when
Te- you
Mohakalilam- mire of delusion
Buddhih – intellect
Vyatitarisyati – cross beyond
Tada- then
Gantasi – you shall attain
Nirvedam – indifference
Srotavyasya- of what has to be heard
Srutasya- what has been heard
Ca- and
When your intellect crosses beyond the slush of delusion, then you shall attain indifference as to what has been heard and what has to be heard.
The term “what is yet to be heard” is to be understood as a representative term standing for all “ sense experiences that are yet to be experienced”. When the intellect becomes purer then it loses all its erstwhile charm for sense experiences – what it had before , and what it may gain in future.

Pranams


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