Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Bringing back the much enjoyed open discussion on the Gita, for general public. Proceeds Chapter and verse wise. For the keen student seeking a deep understanding of Krishna’s counsel! Registration necessary.
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Bringing back the much enjoyed open discussion on the Gita, for general public. Proceeds chapter and verse wise. For the keen student seeking a deep understanding of Krishna’s counsel! Registration necessary.

Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby akore2000 » Thu Feb 24, 2011 5:25 pm

Hari Om , Pranam

Verse 68

Tasmad-yasya mahabaho nigrhitani sarvasah
Indriyanindriyarthebhyas-tasya prajna pratisthita

Tasmat-therefore, yasya-whose, mahabaho-O mighty armed, nigrhitani-restrained, sarvasah-completely, indriyani-the senses, ndriyarthebhyah-from the sense objects, tasya-his, prajna-knowledge, pratisthita- ( is) steady.

Therefore, O Arjuna (Mahabaho), his knowledge is steady whose senses are completely restrained from the sense objects.

In this verse, Arjuna is addressed as mighty-armed, which in itself includes a suggestion that however great a hero he might be in the outer battle with arms, he cannot be considered a real hero until he is able to fight against his enemies within and win a perfect mastery over the mind.

Hari Om

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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby Padmaja » Fri Feb 25, 2011 3:03 pm

Hari Om. Pranams.

Here are the Verses for our discussion. Please post your thoughts, your study notes, reflections on these verses.

Offering this garland of verses to you O Krishna with Love and prostrations from all of us, please help us in our studies.
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Verse 62:

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंस: सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते |
सङ्गात्संजायते काम : कामात्क्रोधोsभिजायते २.६२

dhyayato vishayanpusah sangasteshoopajaayate
sangaat saMjaayate kaam : kaamtkrodhobhijaayate (2.62 )

ध्यायत: - thinking , विषयां -on objects of the senses, पुंस: - of a man, संग : -attachment, तेषु -in them, उपजायते -arises, संगात -from attachment, संजायते -is born, काम: -desire, कामात -from desire, क्रोध: -anger, अभिजायते -arises

When a man thinks of objects, attachment for them arises; from attachment desire is born; from desire arises anger.

Verse 63:

क्रोधात्भवति संमोह : संमोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रम: |
स्मृतिभ्रंशाद बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति २.६३

krodhaad bhavati samohah samohaat smrutivibhram:
smrutibhrashaad buddhi naasho buddhi naashaat pranashyati (2.63 )

क्रोधात -from anger, भवति -comes, संमोह: -delusion, संमोहात -from delusion, स्मृतिविभ्रम loss of memory-, स्मृतिभ्रंशात -from loss of memory, बुद्धिनाश: -the destruction of discrimination, बुद्धिनाशात - from the destruction of discrimination, प्रणश्यति -(he) perishes

From anger comes delusion; from delusion loss of memory; from loss of memory the destruciton of discrimination; from destruction of discrimination he perishes.

These two stanzas describe how contemplation of sense objects amounts to be a source of evil. A pattern is described in these stanzas about how a person can fall. The seed lies in our wrong thinking or false imagination. Thought is creative, so if it is not rightly used, it can mar us. Continous thoughts about sense objects creates an attachment towards the object and more and more thoughts result into burning desire to possess and enjoy that object. Obstructions result in anger (krodha) and krodha results in delusion. Delusion is losing discrimination, conscience. Conscience is that knowledge which discriminates between right and wrong, good or bad. Dulling of this conscience raises animalistic tendencies in the person.

Verse 64:

रागद्वेषविमुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन्
आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति २.६४

raga-dvesa-vimuktais tu visayan indriyais caran
atma-vasyair vidheyatma prasadam adhigacchati (2.64)

राग-द्वेष-विमुक्तैः - free from attraction and repulsion, तु - but, विषयान् - objects, इन्द्रियैः - with sense, चरन् - moving (amongst), आत्म-वश्यैः - self-restrained, विधेय-आत्मा - self controlled, प्रसादम् - to peace, अधिगच्छति - attains

64. But the self-controlled man, moving among objects, with his senses under restraint, and free from both attraction and repulsion, attains peace.
A Master-of-Wisdom, with perfect self-control, moves among the objects of the world with neither any special love, nor any particular aversion, for them. That mind is considered as pure, which feels in itself the least sense-disturbances. One who has learnt to live in self-control and has trained himself to live among the sense-objects in a spirit of the least attachment to, or aversion for them, has the least disturbance, because of the ineffectiveness of the sense-objects upon him. Thereby, his mind automatically becomes more and more calm and tranquil, and is considered as pure (Prasada) for purposes of the spiritual life.

Verse 65:

प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां हानिरस्योपजायते .
प्रसन्नचेतसो ह्याशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते २.६५

prasade sarva-duhkhanam hanir asyopajayate
prasanna-cetaso hyasu buddhih paryavatisthate (2.65)

प्रसादे - in peace, सर्व-दुःखानाम् - (of) all pains, हानिः - destruction, अस्य - of him, उपजायते - arises (or happens),
प्रसन्न-चेतसः - of the tranquil-minded, हि - because, आशु - soon, बुद्धिः - intellect (or reason), पर्यवतिष्ठते - becomes steady

65. In that peace all pains are destroyed; for, the intellect of the tranquil-minded soon becomes steady.
A peaceful mind is significant of happiness. PEACE IS HAPPINESS; HAPPINESS IS PEACE. The least-agitated mind is proof against all sorrows inasmuch as sorrow is nothing but a state of agitation in the mind. It is very well-known that all the vasanas existing in an individual who is facing life constantly, cannot be fully eradicated by him. The secret of doing so has been explained here by the Lord. Keeping the mind exposed to an atmosphere of tranquillity (Prasada), consciously brought about through an intelligent life of self-control, is the secret whereby all the vasanas can get eliminated.


Verse 66:

नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना .
न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् २.६६

nasti buddhi-ayuktasya na cayuktasya bhavana
na cabhavayatah santir-asantasya kutah sukham (2.66)

na-not, asti – is, buddhih- knowledge of the self, ayuktasya- of the unsteady, uncontrolled, na-not, ca-and, ayuktasya-of the unsteady, bhavana- meditation, na-not, ca-and, abhavayatah-of the unmeditative, santih – peace, asantasya- of the unpeaceful, kutah- from where (how), sukham – happiness.

For the uncontrolled, there is no knowledge (of the Self), nor possibility of meditation, and to the unmeditative there is no peace; for the unpeaceful, how can there be happiness?

This verse explains the importance of quietude of the mind. Unless the mind is quiet, the individual will not have the intellectual leisure for cultural self development nor the internal energy needed for it. Only with tranquility of mind, steadiness of intellectual application, discriminative analysis, devotion to Self Knowledge and happiness can be achieved.

Verse 67:

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनुविधीयते .
तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि २.६७

Indriyanam hi caratam yat-manonuvidhiyate
Tad-asya harati prajnam vayur-navam-ivambhasi (2.67)

Indriyanam – senses, hi –for,caratam –wandering, yat –which, manah – mind, anuvidhiyate –follows, tat-which, asya – his, harati – carries away, prajnam – discrimination, vayuh –the wind, navam – boat, iva –like, ambasi – in the waters

When the mind follows the wandering senses, it carries away one’s ability to discriminate,just as the wind carries away a boat on the waters.
The senses have to be controlled if an individual is to live a better and more purposeful life, designed for enduring success.

Verse 68:

तस्माद्यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः .
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता २.६८

Tasmad-yasya mahabaho nigrhitani sarvasah
Indriyanindriyarthebhyas-tasya prajna pratisthita (2.68)

Tasmat-therefore, yasya-whose, mahabaho-O mighty armed, nigrhitani-restrained, sarvasah-completely, indriyani-the senses, ndriyarthebhyah-from the sense objects, tasya-his, prajna-knowledge, pratisthita- ( is) steady.

Therefore, O Arjuna (Mahabaho), his knowledge is steady whose senses are completely restrained from the sense objects.

In this verse, Arjuna is addressed as mighty-armed, which in itself includes a suggestion that however great a hero he might be in the outer battle with arms, he cannot be considered a real hero until he is able to fight against his enemies within and win a perfect mastery over the mind.

Holy Gita Ready Reference:

Terms and Definitions :

24. Define "conscience ".
"Conscience" is that knowledge acquired for differentiating the good from evil with which one often forms a standard in oneself. Whenever it can, the conscience warns the mind against its lustful sensuousness and animalism. Once this conscience is dulled , man becomes a two-legged animal. (2.63 )

25. What is "Prasada" ?
When a mind is trained in two aspects : (a) to live in self control, and (b) to move among sense objects, with neither attachment for non aversion to them, the disturbances and agitations in the mind caused by the sense -enchantments are all immediately brought under control. This condition of the mind is called "prasada" or "peace" (tranquillity) (2.64 )

Thoughts and Concepts:

32. Cite the verses which show the 'ladder of fall' resulting from our wrong attitude toward objects.

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंस: सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते |
सङ्गात्संजायते काम : कामात्क्रोधोsभिजायते २.६२

dhyayato vishayanpusah sangasteshoopajaayate
sangaat saMjaayate kaam : kaamtkrodhobhijaayate (2.62 )

क्रोधात्भवति संमोह : संमोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रम: |
स्मृतिभ्रंशाद बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति २.६३

krodhaad bhavati samohah samohaat smrutivibhram:
smrutibhrashaad buddhi naasho buddhi naashaat pranashyati (2.63 )

33. Elucidating which concept does Sri Krishna use the example of the 'wind carrying away a boat' ?

Sri Krishna uses the example of the 'wind carrying away a boat' to elucidate the 'mind carrying away one's discrimination' when it is overpowered by the senses.(2.67)

34. Why should the senses be kept in control?

As a ship with sails up and helmsman dead would be completely at the mercy of the fitful storms and reckless waves, and will not reach any definite harbour, but is destroyed by the very tossings of the waves, so too, life gets capsized and the individual drowned, if his mind is unanchored and left to be carried hither and thither by the uncertain buffets of passionate sense-storms. Therefore, the senses are to be controlled if man is to live a better and more purposeful life, designed and planned for enduring success. (2.67)

Selection for Reflection:

18. By running away from the sense objects, nobody can assure for himself any inner peace, because the inner disturbance depends not upon the presence or the absence of the sense objects in the outer world, but essentially upon the mind’s agitations for procuring desirable objects or for getting rid of the undesirable ones.

19. Life in self-control alone is life worth living, if we demand from life anything more than tears,sobs,sighs and groans ( 2.68)

Verses for memorisation:

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंस: सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते |
सङ्गात्संजायते काम : कामात्क्रोधोsभिजायते २.६२

dhyayato vishayanpusah sangasteshoopajaayate
sangaat saMjaayate kaam : kaamtkrodhobhijaayate (2.62 )

क्रोधात्भवति संमोह : संमोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रम: |
स्मृतिभ्रंशाद बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति २.६३

krodhaad bhavati samohah samohaat smrutivibhram:
smrutibhrashaad buddhi naasho buddhi naashaat pranashyati (2.63 )

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनुविधीयते .
तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि २.६७

Indriyanam hi caratam yat-manonuvidhiyate
Tad-asya harati prajnam vayur-navam-ivambhasi (2.67)
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby uma » Mon Feb 28, 2011 12:32 pm

Hari Om. Pranam to all.

My understanding of the verses 62 to 68 and HGRR :

The stress in these verses is on the “mind”. Even though, we see, taste, hear, touch, smell through the respective organs of perception, the main impression of all these actions is created in the mind and mind then, as per the vasanas ( earlier impressions), thinks over the perceptions and gives order to the organs of action, to procure the object or to shun it.

Thoughts in the mind, can create or destruct. A flow f thoughts towards a particular object/person/situation, creates desire and attachment, that is binding. Any obstacles, raise anger, anger creates delusion in the mind and this is the beginning of the fall. So the major action is controlling the thoughts in the mind. With control of the thoughts, organs of perception can be controlled. If the mind stops thinking over a particular object/person/situation, again and again and if thoughts towards that can be controlled / erased, the sense can be easily controlled. This is self control. If such a self controlled person is living amidst many objects, his mind is unruffled by their existence or even by the lack of them.

For controlling the thoughts in the mind, the best possible step is practising meditation. Control of thoughts leads to peaceful mind. And such peace and tranquility makes the intellect steady and firm. This tranquility has been termed as Prasada. Such tranquility helps the individual to be happy at all times, during favourable as well as unfavourable situations.

Regards

uma
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby neelamshar » Wed Mar 02, 2011 7:24 pm

Hari Om Padmaji,
I will be in Category 3.
Neelam
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby Padmaja » Wed Mar 02, 2011 10:01 pm

Hari OM. Pranams to All.

Dear Neelam ji, Hearty welcome to you !!! Looking forward to your active participation and contributions to us..

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Maha Shivaratri Greetings to one and All ! Prostrations to Lord Shiva and the entire Guru Parampara !!!
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby Padmaja » Fri Mar 04, 2011 7:51 pm

Hari Om. Pranams.

My reflection on the verses 62 to 68:

Bhagvan is telling how we can fall if we don't have our sense organs in control. 'Objects' are not 'Objects of Sense Pleasures' by their nature. We make them that way. We make them 'desirable' or 'undesirable'. Therefore, the real sense control cannot happen "by running away from objects" but by "learning to think right".

Everything in the world has different qualities, attributes, colours, forms, smells, textures, sounds. If our thoughts linger on those then attachment forms. Many times we talk about 'Bhagvan' and His 'Maya'. All attributes are His "Maya" at play. Just like if we want to pluck a "rose" then we have to carefully manoeuvre around "thorns" otherwise our saree gets caught in them and we can't reach rose. Similarly, if we want Lord/Self then we have to save ourself from his maya. Dwelling on attributes and various experiences makes us to label them as 'desirable' and 'undesirable'. Once we decide that something is 'desirable' then it is like a 'snowball downhill' from there. Mind catches speed trying to get to the desirable object and if somebody comes in its way then there is 'anger' towards whatever that came in the way. Such angry mind in the mood of destruction is unable to see if the obstruction is one's own parents, teachers, sisters, brothers or one's own children. It gets totally deluded and forgets everything. All good samskaras, knowledge, good deeds of others for which one should be grateful, responsibilities, duties...everything is forgotten. In short the intellect becomes unavailable to mind because of surge of agitations caused by anger. When intellect is unavailable no discrimination is possible and the person is at the mercy of his mind like a boat in the ocean abandoned by its helmsman so he ends up making wrong decisions and his life gets destroyed.

When one remains in the objects of the world but does not form 'likes' and 'dislikes' for them (because of one's right evaluation that "objects are manifestations of Self" like one's shadow playing around according to position of light) and lives life of intelligent self-control then all his vasanas get eliminated and his mind remains tranquil and he attains happiness.

Lord again emphasises importance of "tranquil mind" and "sense-control" for attaining happiness and fullness. A man who thinks the joy is in the objects of the world will not be able to control his senses because by nature world is full of sorrow and everything is changing and perishing. He will be constantly chasing mirages as a result and his mind will be unsteady. Such a 'always busy' man will not be available for contemplation on higher so how can he attain peace and happiness? Like image of moon shatters into thousand pieces in stormy lake, even if knowledge is given to him it wouldn't stick there due to his unsteady mind.
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby murugans61 » Sat Mar 05, 2011 1:55 am

Hari OM

Bagavan gives the description of ladder of fall in the verses 62 and 63.

Vishya dhyanam , Sangah, Kamah, Krodha, Sammohah, Smritibhramsat, Budhi nasat, Pranasyati.

Beginning of the fall is vishya dhyana, blindly dwelling upon sense objects. Therefore we need to master our sense organs.

Obstructed desire is Anger. Anger is the virus for the brain computer, which obstructs the knowledge and creates temporary madness and loss of memory & discrimination. Without discrimination, one loses the human status and becomes an animal.

If obstructed desire is anger, what about fulfilled desire? Fulfilled desire leads to greed. Successful gamblers get sucked into more gambling. Hence one has to be careful about sense objects and desire towards them.

So long as sense organs are under the management of discriminative intellect there is peace, no more violent disturbance in the mind. When a person is able to live a disciplined life where the sense organs do run after sense objects indiscriminately and they are under the management of discriminative intellect, he is free from violent emotions. For him, the frequency of violent emotions is lesser, their intensity is less and his recovery from them is faster. Such a calm mind free from violent emotions is important for assimilation of Knowledge.

Two fold benefits of calm equanimous mind are:
1)Destruction of all sorrows. Happiness does not come from outside world and we ourselves are Ananda. Every worldly object is like the bone that the dog bites and the dog thinks that the blood comes from the bone and enjoys it until it knows the truth.
2)When the mind is calm, the Self Knowledge becomes well rooted and assimilated. It is not the amount of food that we consume is important. It is the amount of quality food that we can digest is important

Mind control and sense control are important at every stage of spiritual sadhana i.e Sravanam, mananam and Nidityasanam. Without Sama and Dama, Gnana yoga is impossible. Atma ananda can be reflected only in steady, undisturbed mind.

The boat of knowledge takes a person across the ocean of samsara. However the boat has to be directed properly using strong oars. Lack of mind/ sense management will not allow the knowledge boat to cross the ocean. The blowing wind will take the boat in various directions and even towards whirlpools.

While sense control is important, Bagavan does not prescribe suppression or unintelligent expression (letting go). Intelligent regulation or management is recommended by Bagavan, like the way the flow of river is channelized properly.

Pranams
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby Padmaja » Sat Mar 05, 2011 3:20 am

Hari Om. Pranams.

Thanks Umaji and Muruganji for beautiful reflections. Abhay ji is tied up currently in unavoidable situation so he might not be so regular so let's move on. Abhay ji please do write as and when you can even if it is something that is already discussed. Thanks.

Please write your reflections on the "Selection for Reflection from HGRR" and please also write your thoughts and insights about the "practical questions" below. Please write in two separate posts so it will be easier to read them. Thank You.

Selection for Reflection:

18. By running away from the sense objects, nobody can assure for himself any inner peace, because the inner disturbance depends not upon the presence or the absence of the sense objects in the outer world, but essentially upon the mind’s agitations for procuring desirable objects or for getting rid of the undesirable ones.

19. Life in self-control alone is life worth living, if we demand from life anything more than tears; sobs,sighs and groans ( 2.68)

Practical Questions:

Q.1 After thousands of years of progress by human beings to make it easy to attainin food, shelter and security still why are we so "busy" all the time?

Q.2 Please give examples of a time when you were not engaged in 'vishay dhyan' (meditation on objects).
*** Please take the term 'object' in a broader sense as that which is not a 'subject' (I).

Q.3 Explain why a 'successful' and 'accomplished' person with name, fame, wealth is still 'not happy'?

Q.4 In this excerpt from Pujya Gurudev's commentary what is the practical pointer that we can practice?

"To live in balance, and sail safely upon the uncertain waves of the ocean of life, through both its smiling weather and stormy days, we must have a constant perception of the Real. Without a drummer, the dancers' foot-work cannot be rhythmic and cannot keep perfect time. "
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby murugans61 » Sat Mar 05, 2011 4:44 pm

Hari OM

Bagavan highlights the importance of sense management in this selection. It is impossible to close the sense organs from sense objects. But what is important is to cultivate our sense organs in such a way that they do not develop strong raga dvesha for the objects, which arise due to the misconception that objects are responsible for joy.

Rose is wonderful, but why should I have it in my pocket. I should be able to enjoy it even when it is in the rose plant. If my sense organs are addiction free and can obey my discriminative intellect, I will not have violent disturbances in my mind. I can have a calm mind which is worthy of assimilating Self Knowledge

Pranams
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby Padmaja » Sun Mar 06, 2011 4:17 am

Hari Om. Pranams.

Thanks Murugan ji.

My Reflection on HGRR selection:

Rose and Thorns are on the same plant. Rose is 'Bhagavan' and Thorns are 'Maya'. What we want is Bhagavan(Ananda) but instead we get tangled in thorns (of Maya).

We can't avoid moving in sense objects, we can't avoid even possessing them because their absence will remain as agitation in our mind. There is one shloka in Gita Ch. 3 - Guna Guneshu Vartante Iti matva na sajjate (he who knows GUNAS as senses move amidst GUNAS as objects, is not attached) if we have that kind of vision nothing will stick to us even while possessing sense objects. However right now we don't have that vision. We have to pluck a rose (possess sense objects) but it should not be for putting in our pocket but for doing Puja, in attitude of worship and sacrifice (this is devotee's way of sense control)

Also we can do one other thing. We can understand that all sense objects are like "wrappers of a candy". If we mistake wrapper for a candy and get attached to that wrapper then we can't expect anything other than disappointment and there should be no surprise in it. We shouldn't cry if we get disillusionment after disillusionment. It is our stupidity so we should own it up, and then learn from it ! That's all. Some day, we will have enough vairagya from just doing that.

Merely going through a number of experiences need not make a person wise. What one learns from those experiences is more important. In every experience there is a virtue.
~Swami Tejomayananda
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby uma » Sun Mar 06, 2011 11:46 am

Hari Om. Pranam to all.

Selections for Reflection:

18. By running away from the sense objects, nobody can assure for himself any inner peace, because the inner disturbance depends not upon the presence or the absence of the sense objects in the outer world, but essentially upon the mind’s agitations for procuring desirable objects or for getting rid of the undesirable ones.

Life is nothing but a series of experiences and one has to learn from these experiences and grow. Avoiding experiences will leave this education for evolution incomplete. Even amidst the temptation of the sense objects, one must learn to control one’s mind and this is to be achieved not with suppression but sublimation. Even when there aren’t any sense objects around, mind is capable of continuously thinking upon them hence, physical presence of the sense object isn’t so important. One must be able to control one’s mind so as to avoid any inner disturbance.

19. Life in self-control alone is life worth living, if we demand from life anything more than tears; sobs,sighs and groans ( 2.68)

Mind wishes many things. When things happen as per wishes, one is happy, but may become greedy yearning for more or may become fearful as to guarding whatever one has got. And when things do not happen as per mind’s wishes, one becomes angry. So whatever happens, there are different kinds of emotions agitating the mind. In such an agitated mind, reflection of the inner Self is difficult. To avoid this, one must have calm, peaceful, unruffled mind in all circumstances, pleasurable or otherwise. Composure of the mind should not be disturbed at any time. Such a composure is possible only when certain restrictions are followed, some self control is imposed.

Thanks and Regards

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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby uma » Sun Mar 06, 2011 11:49 am

Hari Om. Pranam to all.

Selections for Reflection:

18. By running away from the sense objects, nobody can assure for himself any inner peace, because the inner disturbance depends not upon the presence or the absence of the sense objects in the outer world, but essentially upon the mind’s agitations for procuring desirable objects or for getting rid of the undesirable ones.

Life is nothing but a series of experiences and one has to learn from these experiences and grow. Avoiding experiences will leave this education for evolution incomplete. Even amidst the temptation of the sense objects, one must learn to control one’s mind and this is to be achieved not with suppression but sublimation. Even when there aren’t any sense objects around, mind is capable of continuously thinking upon them hence, physical presence of the sense object isn’t so important. One must be able to control one’s mind so as to avoid any inner disturbance.

19. Life in self-control alone is life worth living, if we demand from life anything more than tears; sobs,sighs and groans ( 2.68)

Mind wishes many things. When things happen as per wishes, one is happy, but may become greedy yearning for more or may become fearful as to guarding whatever one has got. And when things do not happen as per mind’s wishes, one becomes angry. So whatever happens, there are different kinds of emotions agitating the mind. In such an agitated mind, reflection of the inner Self is difficult. To avoid this, one must have calm, peaceful, unruffled mind in all circumstances, pleasurable or otherwise. Composure of the mind should not be disturbed at any time. Such a composure is possible only when certain restrictions are followed, some self control is imposed.

Thanks and Regards

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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby uma » Sun Mar 06, 2011 11:50 am

Hari Om. Pranam to all.

Practical Questions:

Q.1 After thousands of years of progress by human beings to make it easy to attaining food, shelter and security still why are we so "busy" all the time?

Earlier, man’s aspirations were limited only to securing basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. However, with technological, economic and other progress, many things came into existence, the use of which guarantees some sort of satisfaction such as pleasure, convenience etc. And once, such item is generally used by a wider section of the society, it no longer remains a luxury but turns into a necessity. So the search and aspirations for new things, new inventions is never ending. Human beings are striving to make life more simple, more convenient and more pleasurable and this search never ends. This keeps him “busy” all the time. The best example of this is mobile phone. Earlier when such phones were not in existence, we could do without them very well. But once such phones are available and widely used, everyone wishes to use them and is busy making new inventions which will make them more convenient and further useful.

Q.2 Please give examples of a time when you were not engaged in 'vishay dhyan' (meditation on objects).
*** Please take the term 'object' in a broader sense as that which is not a 'subject' (I).

I do not personally feel, there is such a time ( in waking state), when one is not engaged in vishay dhyan, for common people like us. Because even when , we are meditating, we are thinking of some object, maybe idol of some God or maybe some mantra or name for chanting. Initially ( and this initial stage could spread over a number of years ), one cannot meditate without something..only savikalpa meditation is possible in the beginning and it could take many many years ( or probably births ) to reach nirvikalpa meditation.
So the only time, the mind is not engaged in vishay dhyan could be deep sleep state. Even in dreams, the mind is attached to some object.

Q.3 Explain why a 'successful' and 'accomplished' person with name, fame, wealth is still 'not happy'?

When a person becomes successful and accomplished and has name, fame, wealth, still he cherishes two feelings in mind. One is preservation of all that he has got. Hence, he is worried, fearful and jealously guarding whatever he has got so far. Another feeling is to earn something more than whatever he has got now. This feeling never ends. As soon as the desirable object is achieved and a little bit enjoyed, there springs a new desire to achieve something better, more valuable and this is never ending. So strangled with these two desires, such a person is never happy.


Q.4 In this excerpt from Pujya Gurudev's commentary what is the practical pointer that we can practice?

"To live in balance, and sail safely upon the uncertain waves of the ocean of life, through both its smiling weather and stormy days, we must have a constant perception of the Real. Without a drummer, the dancers' foot-work cannot be rhythmic and cannot keep perfect time. "
The practical pointer in this is we should be continuously aware of Self. Whatever happens, whether a pleasant situation or unpleasant situation, we should perceive it as God Send and should try to learn something from that experience.

Thanks and Regards
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby Padmaja » Mon Mar 07, 2011 12:35 am

Hari Om. Pranams.

Thank you Umaji for your enlightening answers !
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby Padmaja » Mon Mar 07, 2011 9:13 am

Hari Om. Pranams.

Here are my thoughts on practical questions -

Q.1 After thousands of years of progress by human beings to make it easy to attainin food, shelter and security still why are we so "busy" all the time?

Adi Shankara calls hunger as disease and food as medicine. We don't have that kind of an attitude towards all our basic needs. Instead of understanding that 'peace = happiness', we have come to believe that 'satisfying desires = happiness' so if there are no desires we feel we won't be happy and our progress would stop so we are engaged in creating more and more desires. We are focused on making changes 'outside' for our happiness. No thought is given to 'inner development' for happiness.

Bill boards, flashy banners on internet, pictures in magazines, movies and media by repeatedly presenting sense objects make us to brood on those (Dhyayato Vishanpumsa) and we get attached to them. After seeing advertisement few times, it peeps in our mind over and over and soon we feel 'I have to have it'. We start believing that happiness is in 'acquiring that'. Once the desire is created business of production of that thrives. Today's 'greed' then becomes tomorrow 'need' and there is no end to such 'artificially created needs'. In the name of progress, we are chasing mirages with no end in sight. As a result we are 'very busy' like a mosquito all the time and probably spend way more time working than a cave man did thousands of years ago for survival.

I remember one quote by Pujya Guruji Swami Tejomayananda - We buy things that 'we don't need', with the money that 'we don't have', to impress those who 'don't care about us' !

Q.2 Please give examples of a time when you were not engaged in 'vishay dhyan' (meditation on objects).
*** Please take the term 'object' in a broader sense as that which is not a 'subject' (I).

Just like a diver jumps in the air on a spring board before diving in swimming pool, occasionally objects can transport us in the realm beyond objects. It can be watching beauty of nature, it can be baby hugging her mother, it can be holding hands with a lover, it can be deep gratitude felt for the Guru, it can be chanting mantra of God or it can be meditation. One thing is common in all these 'absence of self centred thoughts'. We need to become more selfless. It is our egocentric desire that robs us of happy moments.

Q.3 Explain why a 'successful' and 'accomplished' person with name, fame, wealth is still 'not happy'?

It is nicely explained by Umaji. Man gets deeply attached to name, fame, wealth and starts thinking that without those he will be incomplete. It becomes as though his new identity and loosing it feels to him like losing life, so he remains in the web of 'desire' 'anger', 'greed', 'delusion'.

Q.4 In this excerpt from Pujya Gurudev's commentary what is the practical pointer that we can practice?

"To live in balance, and sail safely upon the uncertain waves of the ocean of life, through both its smiling weather and stormy days, we must have a constant perception of the Real. Without a drummer, the dancers' foot-work cannot be rhythmic and cannot keep perfect time. "

‘Standard of Living’ is progress by controlling outer nature. ‘Standard of Life’ is progress by enhancing quality and texture of our inner nature. To remain in balance and sail safely we need balance between 'standard of living' and 'standard of life'. 'Standard of living' is like a mast of the ship and 'standard of life' is like its keel. If mast is too high and keel is not deep then the ship will topple. There should be helmsman in the form of Scripture and Guru driving our ship and our eyes should be constantly focused on a 'higher noble goal'. This will ensure peace and harmony in our life.
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby murugans61 » Tue Mar 08, 2011 1:22 am

Hari OM

Thank you Umaji and Padmajaji for your detailed and well analyzed answers which provide good learning pointers.
My answers are:
The answer for Q1 and Q3 is Ignorance.
Q2 Example - When we are in deep meditation with out any infuence of worldly vishyas
Q4- The way to practice is to cultivate the attitude of seeing God everywhere, everytime and constantly remembering the Lord through Mantra japa.
Pranams
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby Padmaja » Wed Mar 09, 2011 8:54 am

Hari OM. Pranams.

The verses that we studied present in front of us "ladder of fall" -

He/She thinks(dwells) on object and then - > Attachment - > Desire - > Anger - > Delusion - > Loss of memory - > Destruction of discrimination - > He/She perishes

I think here is our "ladder of ascent" (taken from article of Pujya Guruji):
==============================================================================
Though the state of desirelessness is the most desirable, desires do come up in all of us, often uninvited, and every negative emotion — jealousy, anger, stress and so on — finds for its parent, desire alone. Hence the first aspect of life management is "desire management".

Desire per se is not a cause of bondage. But when it increases in quantity and decreases in quality to unmanageable levels, it destroys man. Now, how do we go about managing our desires? The scriptures have divided man’s life into four stages and at each stage have prescribed different rules to be followed:

Student Life (Brahmacharya Ashram): The foundation for this stage is discipline.
Householder’s Life (Grihastha Ashram): The cornerstone of this stage is the spirit of service.
Spiritual life (Vanaprastha Ashram): Self-inquiry is the foundation of vanaprastha ashrama in an atmosphere of tapas — austerity.
Renunciation (Sannyasa Ashram): Complete freedom from desire adorns a sannyasi only because of his/her constant abidance in the self. His/her is a life of total renunciation, other than the bare needs for survival.

It has been noted that if each stage is lived by its founding principle, desire management will be spontaneous. One will move through discipline, spirit of service and self-inquiry, to abidance in the self, transcending desire to reach desirelessness.
===============================================================================
He/she brings in discipline in his/her life - > cultivates spirit of service and lives selfless life - > retires from worldly things and re-commits to deeper spiritual pursuit, austerity and self-inquiry - > He/she renounces totally and abides in the self (revels in the joy)
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby Padmaja » Wed Mar 09, 2011 9:43 am

Hari OM. Pranams.

Let's now take up Shlokas 69 to 72 (which will conclude chapter 2) for our study. We will learn about 'Contrast between ignorant and wise, what happens to Desirer of desires, who attains peace and state of Self-hood' in these verses.

Please post verse, word meaning and brief explanation from Pujya Gurudev's Gita commentary book for the assigned verses.

69 - Umaji
70, 71 - Padmaja
72 - Muruganji

Holy Gita Ready Reference:

Terms and Definitions: Q. 26 - Muruganji
Thoughts and Concepts: Q. 35, 36, 37 - Umaji
Verses for memorisation: 69, 70, 71 (All) - Padmaja
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby murugans61 » Fri Mar 11, 2011 5:40 am

Hari OM

Verse72:
esa brahmisthitih partha nainam prapya vimukyati
sthitrasyam antakalalepi brahmanirvanam-rcchati

Esa- this, brahmi – of Brahman, sthitih – state, Partha – O Partha, na – not, enam –this, prapya – having obtained, vimuhyati – is deluded, sthitva – being established, asyam – in this, antakale – in the end of life, api – even, brahmanirvanam – oneness with Brahman, rchati – attains.

O Arjuna ( Partha), this is the Brahmi-state. Attaining this, one is not deluded.Being established in it even at the end of life, one attains oneness with Brahman.

Q 26.Terms and Definitions:

Define Brahmisthithi.

When the ego has ended, the Consciousness is not known to be anything other than the Eternal, and as such, the Knower of Truth, in a brilliant experience of the Self, becomes the Self.This state is called Self-hood (brahmisthithi).

Pranams
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Re: Gita Study Group:Chapter 2:Sankhya Yoga

Postby uma » Fri Mar 11, 2011 2:02 pm

Hari om. Pranam to all.

Posting Verse 69 and Thoughts and Concepts from HGRR :


या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी ।
यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुने : ॥ ६९ ॥

yaa nishaa sarvabutaanaam tasyaam jaagarti saMyamee
yasyaam jaagrati bhutaani saa nishaa pashyato muneh

या - which, निशा -night, सर्वभूतानां - of all beings, तस्यां - in that, जागर्ति - wakes, संयमी - the self controlled, यस्यां - in which, जाग्रति - wake, भूतानि -all beings, सा - that, निशा - night, पश्यत: - (of the) seeing, मुने:- of the Muni

That which is night to all beings, in that the self controlled man wakes; where all beings are awake, that is the night for the sage (muni ) who sees.

The verse is written in metaphorical language and points out the difference between the world perceieved through the goggles of mind-intellect-body as against perceived through the open windows of spirituality. The consciousness in us is capable of recognising the world through the media of body, mind and intellect and the world is perceived as imperfect, ugly, full of sorrow and pain because the media that is body, mind and intellect is imperfect. In a person rooted in wisdom, perception is entirely different. Egocentric finite mortal is asleep to the world of perception enjoyed by the man of steady wisdom and in turn such a person cannot see or feel the thrills and sobs perceived by ego in the life of finite experience.

Thoughts and Concepts :

35. Describe an effective strategy to increase one's happiness.

The joy or happiness, at any given time, is a quotient when the "number of desires fulfilled" is divided by the "total number of desires entertained". Along with an attempt to increase the numerator of this quotient, one must, at the same time, control the number of desires entertained. (2.70 )

36. Who attains peace ?

विहाय कामान्य: सर्वान्पुमाश्चरति नि:स्पृह: ।
निर्ममो निरहंकार: स शांतिमधिगच्छति ॥

vihay kaamnyah sarvaanpumaashcharati nihspruhah
nirmamo nirahkaarah sa shaantimadhigacchati

That man attains peace who, abandoning all desires, moves about without longing, without the sense of "I-ness" and "my-ness". (2.71 )

37. Define "Samnyasaa"

"Samnyasaa" means sacrifice. to live in a spirit of sacrifice after renouncing comepletely one's ego and its desires is true samnyasa, wherein an individual comes to live in constant awareness of his fuller and ampler divinity. He alone is a "samnyasin" who has learnt the art of living his life in constant inspiration, which is gained through an intelligent renunciation of his egocentric misconceptions. (2.71)

Regards

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