Use of Vibhakti

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For registered Online Easy Sanskrit students only. Post your queries and doubts arising out of the lessons and debate with other students from the world over. May be periodically moderated by an Acharya.

Use of Vibhakti

Postby ShailajaRao » Tue Sep 20, 2011 5:48 pm

Hari Om
Pranams
Now let us try to understand the 7 Cases(विभक्ति).
The first Case – Nominative (प्रथमा) is used when Subject (कर्तृपद) is important.
उदा – बालः पाठं पठति ।When you put the question कः पठति?, the answer will be ’बालः’। So this is in प्रथमा विभक्ति । This is Singular(एक वचन)। If the sentence is in Plural(बहु वचन), then बालाःपाठं पठन्ति।
Then the question will be के पठन्ति? ।
This is familiar to all of you. So now, from Second Case (द्वितीया विभक्ति),
Rules and use of all विभक्ति with ‘उपपद’ will be dealt with.
Let us try to understand the various case endings.
Observe the following sentences.
१. चित्रकारः चित्रं लिखति ।२. कपयः तरून् आरोहन्ति । ३. कवयः पद्यानि लिखन्ति । ४. तरुण्यः शालां प्रविशन्ति । ५. तक्षकः काष्ठं तक्षति
Rules pertaining to the Accusative Case.
When the questions ‘what’? and ‘whom’ are put, the answer that is got is the object. In Active voice the object is in the Accusative case (द्वितीयाविभक्ति)
उदा – बालकः चित्रं लिखति । बालकः किं लिखति ? चित्रम् – The Picture.
When तिष्ठति and वसति are preceeded by the Preposition (उपसर्ग) ’अधि’ the words expressing Location, (which should have been in the Locative case (सप्तमी)) will be in the Accusative Case.
उदा – व्याघ्री कुत्र अधितिष्ठति ? वनम् ।
‘Where does the tigress live?’ ‘In the forest’. Here we have वनम् instead of वने ।
When the words अभितः, परितः,धिक्, and उभयतः are used, words expressing the sense of Genetive case should be in the Accusative Case.
उदा – कम् अभितः अरण्यानि सन्ति ? हिमालयम् ।
Around what are the forests ? Around Himalaya. Here हिमालयम् should be used instead of हिमालयस्य ।
Similarly when विना is used, words governed by it are in the Accusative case. उदा – जलं विना जीवनं नास्ति ।
यथा – मार्गम् अभितः वृक्षाः सन्ति । परपीडकं धिक् ।
कुम्भकारं परितः घटाः सन्ति । गुरूम् उभयतः शिष्याः सन्ति ।
मित्रं विना यात्रा क्लेशकरी भवति ।
Exercises regarding द्वितीया विभक्ति will be posted next.

With Regards
S.Shailaja Rao (CIF)
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Re: Use of Vibhakti

Postby KCV » Wed Sep 21, 2011 8:12 am

Pranam Acharya ji.
Thank you madam. I think
I understand the first cases better now.
I am confident that I will be able to
handle the first two cases now.
Vazga Valamudan
KCV
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