Samvid/Object Of Knowledge

Re: Samvid/Object Of Knowledge

Postby Umabala » Tue Apr 05, 2016 11:07 pm

Harih Om!

Pujya Swamiji explained that the purpose of Mahavakya is to indicate the ultimate reality, “Brahman”, which is one and the same in Jiva&Iswara thereby enabling to comprehend my real nature.
In the previous sloka Pujya Vidyaranyaji explained that the Supreme Brahman is Akhandam (indivisible) Satchitanandam (Existence, consciousness, bliss) and it is the ultimate goal.

Now, a doubt has been raised that the Brahman is Savikalpa or Nirvikalpa!
Pujya Swamiji explained the different meanings of the word, “Vikalpa”.
Vikalpa can be explained as follows in different ways depending on the context.
1.Option or choice. (Used in grammar).
2.Doubt. (Example: manas or mind)
4.Deeper meaning of vikalpa is property or attribute or quality.

The objection raised by the poorva pakshin (who is from Nyaya school of philosophy) is as follows (Verse 49).

If the denoted object or Lakshya (that which is comprehended by Lakshanaa vritti (that is Brahman)) is with attributes (savikalpa), then it becomes unreal. Anything with properties can change and anything, which changes, cannot become the changeless reality. That which has got attributes cannot become the attribute less reality.

Secondly, if the denoted object (Brahman) is without attributes (nirvikalpa), then such a thing is neither seen nor possible.
We never see a word that indicates an object without property or attribute. The words are constructed using attributes or words are given to those objects that have attributes.
To define anything the following methods are used.
Jaati: Common property.
Guna: Specific property.
Kriya: By Function.
Sambandha: By Relation.
Brahman has no Jaati, Guna, Kriya or Sambandha.
So, it is not possible for the words to denote something that has none of the four attributes.
The Poorvapakshin intent is not to establish anything but just to deny advaitin (Siddhantin) understanding. This is called Vithanda.
For the doubt raised by the Poorvapakshin, Pujya Vidyaranyaji asks the counter question. (Verse 50).
Since the question is on Vikalpa or attributes, does the objection is about the Brahman without attributes or with the attributes. What is the Ashraya or Adhistanam or locus or substratum for the property,”Vikalpa”? Where does the property reside? Is it in Nirvikalpa or Savikalpa!
If you say the property or attribute resides in Brahman without attributes (nirvikalpa), then it is self-contradictory. As, how can an attribute reside in an attribute less thing?
If you say the property or attribute (vikalpa) rests in Brahman, which has attributes (savikalpa), then it leads to the following logical fallacies.

1.Atmaashraya Dosha: Defect of Self-dependence.
2.Anyonaashraya Dosha: Defect of mutual dependence.
3.Chakraka Dosha: Defect of cyclic dependence.
4.Anavasthaa Dosha: Defect of infinite Regress.

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Re: Samvid/Object Of Knowledge

Postby Umabala » Sat Apr 09, 2016 9:33 pm

Harih Om!
The argument put forth by Pujya Vidyaranyaji is explained. He puts forth the argument by asking a counter question to the Poorvapakshin.
Does the property or attribute rests in something that has property, or in something that has no property?
1.If you say the property or vikalpa rests in something that has no property (attribute) then it is self-contradiction (Vyaahati) as the question is about the attributes of the attribute less!
2.If you say the property rests in something that has properties, then it leads to four logical fallacies.

If the vikalpa (V1) rests in an object that has got a vikalpa (V2), then there are two possibilities.
Is V1&V2 are the same or different?

[A] If V1&V2 are the same that means:
V1=V2 or V1=V1. (As V2 is same as V1).
If V1 is same as V2, then V1 is resting on V1, then there is an error in which the attribute (vikalpa) depends on itself. It is called ATMASHRAYA DOSHA or defect of self-dependence.

[B] If V1&V2 are different then the question comes where does V2 rest? If you say V2 rests on V3, and then again the question comes, is V3 same as V1 or different?
If you say V3 is same as V1, then it means V2 is resting on V1.So, V1 is resting on V2 and V2 is resting on V1 causing the error of mutual dependence or ANYONASHRAYA DOSHA.

[C] If you say V3 is different from V1, and then the question is where does the V3 rest? If you say V3 rests on V4, and then again the question comes, is V4&V1 same or different?
If you say V4 &V1 are the same (V4=V1), then it leads to V1 resting on V2 and V2 resting on V3 and again V3 resting on V1 leading to the error of cyclical dependency or CHAKRAKA DOSHA.

[D] If you say V4 is different from V1, then the question comes where does V4 rest and if you say on V5, then the question comes where does V5 rest and if you say on V6, then again the question comes where does V6 rest and it goes on and on leading to the error of infinite regression or ANAVASTHAA DOSHA.
So, the Siddhantin asks the poorvapakshin to show where the property or vikalpa or attribute lies?

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Re: Samvid/Object Of Knowledge

Postby Umabala » Tue Apr 12, 2016 11:31 pm

Harih Om!
Pujya Swamiji explained that Vikalpa means any differentiating factor that differentiates one from the other. It can be anything like Jaati, Guna, and Kriya etc.
In Nyaya School of philosophy, the padaarthas (the whole world is reduced into) are divided into seven categories.
1.Dravya or substance or material.
2.Guna or quality. (subdivided into)
a. Saamaanya (species) or common quality.
b. Visesha or specific quality.
3.Kriya or action.
4.Samavaaya or inherence.
5.Abhaava or absence.

In the verse 51 Pujya Vidyaranyaji says that the same logical fallacies (which we discussed in the previous verses) can be shown in any object having dravya, kriya, guna etc. (in all the seven padaarthas mentioned above). For example if we talk about kriya or action, then the question comes is it in the action less (attribute less) or is it in the one with action (with attributes). Then again all the five defects mentioned above will come into the picture. You cannot logically establish their reality in Brahman. All these seven padarthas are of the nature of the world; they do not pertain to the ultimate Reality. World is Mithya in the sense that it can be seen but it does not stand the test of reality. It is the nature of the world to be inexplicable or illogical or unreasonable.

In the verse 52 Pujya Vidyaranyaji explains that the Brahman is untouched by the words like savikalpa or nirvikalpa, and the relationship of modification (either savikalpa or nirvikalpa), the Mahavakyas indicating Brahman through Lakshyartha, Brahman as jagatkaaranam are all superimposed or alleged on Brahman.

Now again the question comes, it has been told in the earlier verse (verse 51) that all the vikalpas pertain to the world and Supreme reality is untouched by vikalpas. Now, in the verse 52 it has been told that Brahman is neither savikalpa nor vikalpa.
It has been explained as follows.
With respect to savikalpa, Supreme Reality is nirvikalpa. But, when vikalpa itself has been established false, then how can one posit the absence of vikalpa.

It has been explained with Rope&snake example. When one is deluded to think rope as snake (as the snake is full of poison), then to explain to that person one says that in reality it is rope and rope is free of poison. Once the person understands that it is not snake but rope, then how can one say that the rope is free of poison!
Similarly, to differentiate Brahman from the savikalpa world it has been told in the scriptures that Brahman is nirvikalpa, when vikalpa itself is false, how can we say Brahman is nirvikalpa.

In the same way, the Mahavaakyas indicate Brahman at the teaching level, but when Maya &Avidya are themselves false, where is the dropping of them in Lakshyaartha! In order to take the person to the understanding of Brahman lakshanaa vritti is explained. When one attains the Brahman, at that highest level, the lakshyartha of Tat&Tvam is not there. That Mahavaakyas through which one attains the Brahman is based on the acceptance of Jiva&Iswara is true at the level of teaching. It helps us to get the clarity of Jiva Brahma Aikyam.But, at the ultimate level of reality Brahman is not even indicated by the Mahavaakyas. The supreme Reality is beyond words.
For teaching purposes the words have been employed and once the Truth is understood, the words are dropped. So, one should not argue that why the words are used in the first place as they are going to be dropped at the ultimate level.

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Re: Samvid/Object Of Knowledge

Postby Umabala » Sat Apr 16, 2016 5:51 am

Harih Om!
Pujya Swamiji explained that Mahavaakyas act as pointers to the absolute Reality. The Reality is untouched by the words. The finger can point the moon in the sky but cannot touch the moon.

In the verse 53 Sravanam&Mananam are explained.

Vedanta sravanam is the means to understand the meaning of Mahavaakyas. Comprehension of the meaning of Mahavaakyas through Bhagatyaga Lakshanaa is called sravanam. From verse 44 to 48 the methodology of Bhagatyaaga lakshanaa is explained. Listening (sravanam) is a technical term that indicates one has comprehended the meaning of Mahaavaakyas (Jiva Brahma Aikya Jnaanam). Sravanam is to arrive at the knowledge of identity of oneself with Brahman (Jiva Brahma Aikya Jnaanam) through the Mahaavaakyas by the process of Bhagatyaaga lakshanaa.
Anusandhaanam means to keep this truth in the intellect all the time.

Mananam is explained as follows. Mananam is the logical comprehension of the truth (in accordance with the scriptures) to make it valid to me. To comprehend the Truth without doubts. The doubts pertaining to the JivaBrahma aikyam are dispelled in Mananam.

Through the process of Sravana&Manana two kinds of doubts are removed.
1.Pramaana-Gata Sandeha are removed by Sravanam. Pramaana is means of knowledge. What is the means of knowledge for liberation? Vedanta is the means of knowledge or pramaana to know oneself and is the means of liberation. What is the central message of Vedanta is the doubt pertaining to Pramaana. By Sravana this doubt is removed and one gets clarity on the message of Vedanta.
2. Prameya-Gata Sandeha are removed by Mananam.
Vedanta is the means of knowledge to know the identity of oneself with the Brahman.
Means of knowledge is the Pramaana.
Identity of oneself with the Brahman is Prameya.
Mananam removes the doubts pertaining to Prameya. The questions like how jivabrahma aikyam is possible etc. are removed by Mananam. One gets the clarity that the message of Vedanta is true.

In Verse 54 Nidhidhyasanam is explained as follows.
In that Reality of Jiva Brahma aikyam (understood through the Sravanam&Mananam) when the mind becomes single pointed, that single pointedness of the mind is called Nidhidhyaasanam or contemplation. Contemplation comes only when Sravanam&Mananam are successful. Only when all doubts are clarified one can do Nidhidhyasanam.Nidhidhyaasanam is also called Savikalpa Samadhi. Through Nidhidhyasanam the seeker removes the Viparita Bhaavana or contrary thought that I am the Jiva (which is due to habitual, mistaken notion of the mind). To counteract this thought, the seeker does Nidhidhyasanam. The mind gets established in the knowledge of oneness of oneself with the Brahman and says that, “That Brahman I am”. Nidhidhyasanam is actualization of truth by breaking the contrary thought.

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Re: Samvid/Object Of Knowledge

Postby Umabala » Sat Apr 23, 2016 9:39 pm

Harih Om!
Pujya Swamiji explained that the Sravanam tells me about my real nature of oneness with Brahman or JivaBrahma Aikya Jnaanam.Mananam helps me to comprehend the Truth without doubts.
Purity&Clarity of mind is the essence of spiritual pursuit.
Without Purity of mind Clarity is unstable.
Without Clarity of mind Purity will not help.
Pujya Swamiji explained the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Mantra,”aatmavaare drastavyaha, srotavyaha, mantavyaha, nidhidhyasitavyaha”.
The Self ought to be realized by Sravanam, Mananam&Nidhidhyasanam.

When my doubts (Pramana-Gata sandeha&Prameya-Gata sandeha) are cleared by Sravanam&Mananam, I should be able to abide in the knowledge of,”Aham Brahmasmi”. But, experientially there seems to be a contradiction between what I know& how I feel. I still feel that I am a limited individual even though I understood that I am that all pervading Brahman. This is because of the habitual erroneous thinking of mind and it is taken care by Nidhidhyasanam. The more one becomes familiar with the fact of one’s true nature, the lesser will be the erroneous thought.

Nidhidhyasanam is Sajaatiya Vritti Pravaha. It means constant flow of thoughts of same nature. The mind is focused on the single thought of Aham Brahmasmi and this single flow of thought maintained for continuous period of time. Then that thought becomes strong with repetition and it sinks into the deeper levels of the mind and it becomes a part and parcel of thinking process. It knocks off the erroneous habitual thought of mind.

When Nidhidhyasanam is practiced for a length of time it becomes effortless absorption. This absorption is called Samadhi.

As Nidhidhyasanam is with single flow of thought (which has three components) it is called Savikalpa Samadhi.Vikalpa means Bhedha or Division. This division is called Triputi or three fold distinction in Vedanta. This Triputi is called Vikalpa.
Savikalpa Samadhi means Vikalpena Sahitaha Samadhi.
The Triputi in Savikalpa Samadhi are:
1.Dhyata or Dhyatru-meditator or the individual ego.
2.Dhyeya –Meditated. The thought or knowledge of Aham Brahmasmi.
3.Dhyanam-Meditation.Sense of I am Meditating or putting effort on the Meditated.

When one puts effort at Savikalpa Samadhi, one drifts into Nirvikalpa Samadhi. When we talk of Samadhi per se it means Nirvikalpa Samadhi.
This is explained in detail in Verse 55.
In Savikalpa Samadhi there is a feeling of I am meditating on Aham Brahmasmi. In Nirvikalpa Samadhi there is only Aham Brahmasmi, the sense of I am meditating on Aham Brahmasmi goes away.
The knowledge of Aham Brahmasmi is in the form of composite (three components) thought. They are,
I am (ego thought)
I am meditating (effort thought)
Aham Brahmasmi (knowledge thought).
The ego thought and effort thought goes away one by one in Nirvikalpa Samadhi. First, the dhyatru or ego thought is dropped and when the ego thought is dropped, the thought of I am meditating or effort thought goes away. The mind has got only one thought-knowledge thought. This thought shines like a steady, constant flame (without flicker) kept in a breezeless place. When breeze is there the flame puts effort to remain. When there is no breeze, the flame just remains.
Unlike any thought (as any thought always has three components), the mind has got only Dhyeya or knowledge thought. Because only one thought is there, we cannot call it as Triputi. There is no Vikalpa or Triputi in Nirvikalpa Samadhi.
This thought is called Akhandaakaara Vritti or Brahmaakaara Vritti.The thought has the nature of Brahman. There is no division between aham (I) &Brahman. The thought comprehends the oneness of Self&Brahman.This extremely subtle Vritti or thought (Sookshma vritti) puts an end to ignorance. This state of Sookshma Vritti that puts an end to ignorance is called Samadhi.

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Re: Samvid/Object Of Knowledge

Postby Umabala » Sat Apr 30, 2016 3:01 am

Harih Om!
Pujya Swamiji explained the words Dhyaata, Dhyaanam&Dhyeya with the following example.
I Meditate on Aham Brahmasmi.
I is the Dhyaata, Meditate is Dhyaanam&Aham Brahmasmi is the Dhyeya.
In Nirvikalpa Samaadhi the words I (dhyaata), Meditate (Dhyaanam) drop away one by one and the Aham Brahmasmi (Dhyeya) remains.
The absorption that is associated by the three-fold distinction or Vikalpa (Dhyaata, Dhyaanam&Dhyeya) is called Savikalpa Samaadhi.
The absorption that is not associated with vikalpa is called Nirvikalpa Samaadhi.
After the Practice of Nidhidhyasana or Savikalpa Samaadhi for long time, one drifts into Nirvikalpa Samaadhi (effortless absorption). One reaches effortlessness by effort.

The Verse 56 is explained as follows.
The thoughts (Aham Brahmasmi) in the Samaadhi are so subtle that they go unnoticed during the Samaadhi time. The extremely subtle thoughts or the ati sookshma vrittis are not experienced concretely. So, in this Nirvikalpa Samaadhi, thoughts having the Self as object (Aham Brahmasmi) are not palpably felt. They are too thin to be felt and became so close to Self, we can’t catch them on the radar of perception. However, they (thoughts of Aham Brahmasmi) are recollected once the Mahatma comes out of Samaadhi. Only an experience can be recollected. Because the thoughts of Aham Brahmasmi are recollected after getting up from Samaadhi, it can be inferred that Aham Brahmasmi thoughts were experienced during Nirvikalpa Samaadhi time.
Now the question is when the Dhyata or ego&Dhyanam or the effort of Meditation are absent in Nirvikalpa Samadhi, then how can the Samaadhi is maintained?

This is explained in Verse 57.
The anavacchina parampara or the unbroken flow of extremely subtle thoughts of Aham Brahmasmi can happen (without the dhyata or ego) because of the initial efforts (or push) put during the Savikalpa Samaadhi and also because of the Adrista or Prarabhdha or the good spiritual punya karma from previous births and also because of the repeated practice of Samaadhi abhyasa or self effort (purushartha). These forces (samskaras or impressions) propel the sookshma vritti (thoughts of the Self or Aham Brahmasmi)) into anuvritti (continuous flow of unbroken thoughts).The length of Nirvikalpa Samaadhi depend on these above said factors. Samaadhi is the Niruddha Avastha of mind.

In Verse 58,Pujya Vidyaranyaji quoted the Srimad Bhagavad Gita slokas as the Pramanam. (Slokas 11 to 29 chapter 6). Bhagavan Sri Krishna explained to Arjuna in similar way by giving the example of flame kept in a breezeless spot.
Pujya Swamiji explained that the flame looks like a single solid flame, but is made up of countless flames giving the experience of single solid flame without intermission(Anuvritti).

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