Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Postby Dharmavaram » Sat Jul 02, 2016 4:37 am

Harih Om!
Here are the notes I was taking during Pujya Swamiji’s class. If there are any mistakes in the notes, they show the need to improve my clarity in the understanding of the text.
Thank you for reading.

Pujya Swamiji started Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam (second chapter in the Panchadasi book).
In this chapter Pujya Vidyaranya Swamiji takes the sentence from the Sruti (Chandogyopanishad.Chapter 6) and explains about it in the later text.
“Sad eva, saumya, idam agra asid ekam evadvitiyam”.
In the beginning (before creation), dear boy, existence was one alone, one without a second.
He explains that in this prakaranam, the one (Self) that is the pure existence and non-dual in nature can be understood by discriminating or differentiating it from the Pancha Bhūta or five elements. That Sat or existence is easily comprehensible through Pancha Bhūta Viveka or Knowledge of five elements. (Sugamam Bhavati).

Pujya Swamiji explained the Anubhanda Chatustayam.
They are four in number.
1. Adhikari: Seeker of Self Knowledge or liberation (mumukshu).
2. Vishaya: Sat-advaitam or non-dual existence is the subject matter of the text.
3. Sambhanda: Denoted by the term,”Pravivichyate”. Sambhanada explains the relation of text to the purpose or pursuit of the seeker. By the study of the text, the seeker of liberation gains liberation. It is called Boddhya-Bodhaka Sambandha. The relation ship between the revealed (Self knowledge which is the cause of liberation) and revealer (the text).
4. Prayojanam: Denoted by the term,”Boddhum sakyam”. The purpose of the Pancha Bhūta Viveka prakaranam is to know that Reality that bestows us liberation.

The word Sat-advaitam is explained in detail.
1.Sat iti asthithaa maatram. Mere or pure Existence means which has no properties what so ever. It doesn’t have the properties of Sabda, Sparsha, Rupa, Rasa and Gandha. Mere Existence or Sat is Guna rahitam.
2.As it is Guna rahitam, it cannot be comprehended by the senses, Indriya Agocharam.
3.Any object does not limit Sat and it pervades all the objects, Sarvagatam.
4.As it is present in every object, it becomes one universal presence, Ekam.
5.It is one without a second, Advaitam.
6.Before creation, it was Existence alone without the second.
Existence fashioned itself to appear as world. Existence is the Abhinna Nimitta (intelligent), Upaadaana (material) Kaarana (cause) of the world.
The intelligent cause (nimitta kaaranam) denotes the presence of sentiency or Consciousness in the Sat or Existence. It means Existence is also Jnaana Maatram.
Sat (Existence) is Chit (Consciousness). Existence is Consciousness and Consciousness is Existence.Sat Chit Svarupam.
Sat-advaitam means Existence in the form of Consciousness.
Sat-advaitam denotes the Jiva (inward Consciousness) Brahma (Existence) Aikyam (Unity).
Sat-advaitam is the Vastu Sangraha Vaakyam.All that is to be said is comprehended in the Vaakyam Sat-advaitam (that which is you) is going to be taught in this chapter.
In the second verse, Pujya Vidyaranya Swamiji explains the properties of Pancha Bhūta.
In Gurusmaranam,
Posts: 10
Joined: Tue Jun 07, 2016 3:29 am

Re: Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Postby Dharmavaram » Sat Jul 09, 2016 1:33 am

Harih Om!
Pujya Vidyaranyaji uses the Prakriya Pancha Bhūta Viveka to understand the Sat or the Reality.
The five elements and the qualities present in the five elements are discussed in the next slokas.
Pujya Swamiji explained the slokas (from 3 to 9) in the second chapter as follows.

Pujya Swamiji explained the terms,Svakaarana Gunam and Svavisesha Gunam.
Svakaarana Gunam is the borrowed Gunam (to carry the property or Gunam from the cause from which the element has come) of the element.
Svavisesha Gunam is the original or unique Gunam of the element.
Every element has one Svavisesha Gunam.
The Svakaarana Gunam number in each element varies.

The properties of five elements are Shabda, Sparsha, Rupa, Rasa and Gandha.
We recognize each element by its properties.
Aakaasha is that element which has the property of Shabda (or Sound).
Vayu is that element which has the properties of both Shabda and Sparsha (or Touch).
Agni or tejas is that element which has the properties of Shabda, Sparsha and Rupa (or color/form).
Jala or Aapa or Water is that element which has the properties of Shabda, Sparsha, Rupa and Rasa (or Taste).
Prithvi or Bhoomi or earth is that element which has Shabda, Sparsha, Rupa, Rasa and Gandha (or Smell).

Element Svavisesha Gunam Svakaarana Gunam
1.Space Sound
2.Vayu Touch Sound.
3.Agni Color/form Sound, Touch (heat).
4.Water Taste Sound,Touch(cold),Color/form
5.Earth Smell Sound,Touch,Color/form,Taste.

The sound of Aakaasha is called Pratidhvani.That nature of sound that requires a transmitting medium is called Pratidhvani.

Jnanendriyas are formed from satva guna of subtle aspect of each element. That means jnanendriyas are the subtle organs of perception or the faculties of perception. Sense organs or jnanendriyas can never be seen. Then, how do we know we have sense organs? We can infer the presence of sense organs by their functions. The senses being subtle are inferred from their effects.
The external apparatus which acts as a receptacle or abode for the jnanendriya or sense organs is called Golakam.We can see only the Golakam.

Indriya means Sukshma.
Golakam means Sthoola.
Srotram (Indriya) staying in the golakam of ear perceives sound.
Tvak (Indriya) staying in the golakam of skin perceives touch.
Chakshu (Indriya) staying in the golakam of eye perceives color/form.
Jihva (Indriya) staying in the golakam of tongue tastes rasa.
Ghraanam (Indriya) staying in the golakam of naasika or nose perceives smell.

The senses are usually extrovert.
( sometimes, they have internal cognition also.)
Pujya Swamiji quoted the Mantra from Kathopanishad,
“Paraanchikaani vyatrnaat swayambhuuh”,
The creator created the senses with outgoing or extrovert nature.
Pujya Gurudev called it as Manufacturer’s defect.
Even though the ear is usually extrovert, sometimes, it can hear the inner sounds of respiration,similarly, one can feel the cold sensation while drinking cold water, one can experience the darkness on closure of eyes and in belching one has the experience of both smell and touch.
In Gurusmaranam,
Posts: 10
Joined: Tue Jun 07, 2016 3:29 am

Re: Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Postby sunilgoel29 » Tue Jul 12, 2016 7:06 pm

Hari Om!

Very well captured Uma ji. I had another question. How are the panchabhutas held together?

Love and Pranaams!

Sunil Goel
Posts: 21
Joined: Mon Aug 16, 2010 11:09 pm
Location: Lagos, Nigeria

Re: Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Postby Dharmavaram » Thu Jul 14, 2016 1:50 am

Harih Om!
Pujya Swamiji explained the slokas 10,11&12 in the second chapter.

With respect to jnanendriyas the objects are the properties or qualities of the elements. It was discussed in the previous verses.

With respect to Karmendriyas the objects are the five functions of the organs. The five functions are speech, grasping, locomotion, excretion and sex pleasure. Other actions like trading, working in service industry, farming etc. come into the above said five types only. The five organs of actions or karmendriyas are the subtle, inner faculties and they rest in subtle body. They are faculty of speech (vāk), faculty of grasping (pāni), faculty of locomotion (pāda), faculty of excretion (paayu) and the faculty of procreation (upastha). By these five indriyas, those five fold actions as enumerated above are born.
The respective golakams (external abodes) for these five Indriyas is explained as follows. Golakams belong to physical or sthoola sariram. These Indriyas reside in their respective golakams.
Vāk indriya resides in the mouth; Pāni indriya resides in the hands etc.
The jnanendriyas and karmendriyas together are called Bahih Karanam.They are called Bahih in relation to Antahkaranam, which is the inner instrument.
In verse 12 Mind or the faculty of thought is explained. Mind (includes manas, buddhi, ahankāra&chittam) is the controller or preraka of the ten organs. Function of the mind is to co ordinate the all the ten faculties. Golaka of Mind is heart. In sleep mind resides in heart and in waking state mind resides in brain.
Sādhakatamam Karanam. That, which is the unique means or best means or means par excellence is called Karanam. Mind is called inner karanam as it takes the assistance of ten indriyas to function in the external world. Without the help of these indriyas, mind is not independent to contact the external objects. Mind is the instrument to recognize the Guna&Dosha with respect to the inputs brought in by the indriyas.

In Gurusmaranam,
Posts: 10
Joined: Tue Jun 07, 2016 3:29 am

Re: Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Postby Dharmavaram » Sat Jul 16, 2016 9:38 pm

Harih Om!
Pujya Swamiji explained the sloka 13.
Mind or Antahkaranam is the preraka or prompter for the ten organs. The residence of the mind is heart. Even though light of the lamp pervades the whole room, we say that the light resides in the lamp. Similarly, even though the mind pervades the whole body, yet we say that the mind resides in the heart.
Karanam means instrument. Usually, the word karanam means unique or specific or Asādhārana or Visēsha, “Asādhārana Kāranam Karanam”. For Rupa eyes are the specific karanam for perception of color/form etc.
Mind is called Sāmānya karanam or Sādhārana karanam when it uses eyes to know the color and ears to know the sound etc.
When the Ten Indriyas are engaged with their respective objects, mind does the good and bad enquiry about the inputs brought in by the ten indriyas. The mind divides the external world into either good or bad or neutral category. The mind becomes an Asādhārana Karanam while doing Gunadosha Vichara.
Pujya Swamiji explained that we get agitated or disturbed not in sense organs but in mind. It is the job of the mind to categorize, that nature of mind cannot be helped. But, one should not come under its sway.
“Tayorna Vashamāgacchēt tauhasya Paripanthinau. (Ch.3.34. Srimad Bhagavad Gita)”.
Mind is established by postulation or Arthāpatti. Mind is known by anubhava or direct inner perception.
Mananātmakatvāt Manaha.The mind is of the nature of thoughts. It has got three properties.
Satva, Rajo and tamas.
Satva represents the knowledge aspect.
Rajas represent the dynamic aspect.
Tamas represents the inert aspect.
The mind undergoes various changes because of the above three. When the senses come in contact with the world, the mind categorizes the objects as good or bad because of the three gunas.

Pujya Swamiji quoted the verse from Vēdānta kalpalatika written by Pujya Madhusudana Saraswati to explain the presence of rajas and tamas as the properties of mind.
“Satvāmsha Pradhāna Apanchīkrita Pancha Mahābhūta Kāryam”-Antahkaranam.
Antahkarana or mind is the effect of predominantly or mostly of the Sattvic aspect of subtle five elements.

In Gurusmaranam,
Posts: 10
Joined: Tue Jun 07, 2016 3:29 am

Re: Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Postby Dharmavaram » Sun Jul 31, 2016 1:41 am

Harih Om!
Regarding the question how the Pancha Mahā Bhutas are held together, I think we may understand more about it as we read further along in the book.

Pujya Swamiji explained the verses 14,15&16.
Satva is the natural state of the mind.
The author talks about Satvic, Rajasic&Tamasic modifications of the mind.
Because the Satva Guna is pure, it has two components: Prakāsha or Knowledge or Clarity of mind&Anāmayam or freedom from afflictions (sorrow). In other words peace or blissful state of the mind.
“Tatra sattvam nirmalatvat prakāshakam anāmayam.”
(BG: ch14: sloka 6)

Shānti or peaceful aspect of Satva is contraindicated by the restless thoughts of Rajo vritti.
Prakāsha or knowledge aspect of Satva is contraindicated by the ignorance thoughts of tamo vritti.

1.The sātvika vritti expresses as dispassion, forgiveness or forbearance &generosity or sense of oneness with everybody.
2.The rajo vritti expresses as desire and unfulfilled desire leads to anger and anger leads to delusion. Fulfilled desire leads to greed and in turn leads to pride and jealousy.
Delusion is (1) the feeling that there is joy in the objects or world. (2) Loss of nityanitya vastu viveka.
The rajo vritti also expresses as agitated or excited efforts.
3.The tamo vritti expresses as procrastination, delusion& sluggishness.
The above said expressions of vrittis acts as a litmus test to know the type of modification in the mind.

1.Through sātvik vritti inner merit grows.
Punya is the internal subtle result of an action or thought that accumulates or resides in the antahkarana. The antahkarana carries this to next life. Those actions that generate peace, knowledge are Punya Karma.Punya vritti leads to Punya karma and both lead to punyam, which is a phalam (subtle inner result).
2.Through rajo vritti pāpa or sin grows. The rajasik vritti leads to rajasik karma and both lead to pāpam as phalam.
Sāstram is the means for clarity and what should be done and what should not be done (tasmāt shāstram pramānam-BG ch 16 sloka 24).
3.Through tamo vritti neither punya nor papa comes and only life is wasted.
Human life is a combination of punya&pāpa. Any Duhkha is the fructification of papa and any Sukha is the fructification of punya.

Who is the possessor or who takes the ownership for all these (which were enumerated in the previous verses) is explained as follows.
Vritti or pratyaya or thoughts are usually used as synonyms.
Aham vritti or Aham pratyaya is that vritti that captured the sense of I.
When the mind arises, I thought or Aham pratyaya comes. It becomes the Karta or the Doer or Ego. The doer ship or agency includes the following.
Jānāti (knower), Icchati (desirer), karoti or yatati (doer)& bhunjati (enjoyer) are all included in the Ego.
Ego is nothing but a thought as it arises in the mind. The ego identifies with the body and says I am tall or short etc.

The association of I with the thought is explained as follows.
Aham karoti iti Ahankāra. Aham vritti is also called ahankāra.
The aham vritti is the Sābhāsa aham vritti.
Ābhāsa means reflection. The pure consciousness or Self or true I is reflected in the thought. When the true I gets reflected in the thought, it is called Ābhāsa.
Sa means Sahita or along with
Ābhāsa means reflection.
Ābhāsa sahita aham vritti =Sābhasa aham vritti.

This is the way it is understood in the world.

In Gurusmaranam,
Posts: 10
Joined: Tue Jun 07, 2016 3:29 am

Re: Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Postby Dharmavaram » Sat Aug 06, 2016 2:41 am

Harih Om!
Pujya Swamiji explained the verses 17&18.

The external world is material or Bhouthikam (Panchabhūta kruta) in nature. The Pancha Bhūtas (Ākāsha, Vayu, agni, jalam&prithvi) have five gunas (shabda, sparsha, rupa, rasa&gandha) and the world also has the five gunas. It is very clear that external, gross world is the effect of five elements, as we can perceive it. We can know that physical body is also matter, as we can perceive it.
How one can understand the Mind and the ten indriyas are made up of five elements, as they are not perceived like the worldly objects or the physical body?
Pujya Vidyaranyaji explains that with the help of logic (yukti or reasoning)&Sastra (trustworthy source, Āpta Vākyam), it can be known that the mind and ten indriyas are also made up of matter.

1.The Chandogyopanishad (ch 6) is cited for Saastra pramaanam. It is explained in Chandogyopanishad as follows.
Annamayam hi Soumya Manaha.
Apomayaha Pranaha.
Tejomayee Vak.

The mind is made up of food. The food we take is divided into three parts. The grossest part is excreted out as feces. The middle sūkshma part becomes energy and the subtlest part becomes mind.
The Prāna are made up of water. (Gross aspect of water we take becomes urine, middle part becomes blood etc. and the subtlest part becomes Prāna).
The speech is made up of fire.
An experiment done by Uddālaka Rishi (father) on his son Svetaketu explains the fact that mind is made up of food. He asks his son not to eat food for fifteen days and asks him to take plenty of water. When the son comes back after fifteen days to see his father, the father asks him to repeat a portion of Rig-Veda (which the son already learnt). But, the son is not able to repeat the vedam asked by his father as the mind is weakened by the lack of food. The mind did not function. He is able to retain his Prāna (the Prāna is functioning) as he is taking lot of water.
It can be analyzed by Anvaya vyatireka logic. The logic of co presence and co absence. The absence of food makes the mind weaker and vice versa.(Food is the nourisher of the mind).The mind depends on the five elements. In this way, it has been proved that the mind is made up of five elements.

2. There is the connection between the elements and the organs. The Auditory organ (srotra) being made up of Ākāsha can comprehend sound which is the property of Ākāsha.
Tattad Indriyam tattad Bhūta janyam tattad Bhūta guna grāhakatvāt.
Indriya born from that element can comprehend the property of that element from which it is born.

3.Kārana Gunān Kāryeshu Prārabhante.
The properties belonging to the cause will enable the properties in their effects.
Properties of the effects are directly proportional to their causes.
If not for Vāyu being the cause of Tvak, Tvak (skin) will not be able to comprehend touch and the same rule applies to other elements also.
In this way, the author proves that the mind and the ten senses are made up of elements and bhouthikam only.

The 18th verse is explained as follows.
The word “Idam” or this denotes whatever we experience through the eleven sense organs.(ten senses and the mind).
The entire objects of the world acted upon by karmendriyas, comprehended by jnanendriyas and all the three mental modifications comes under the word Idam or this.
Whatever knowledge (however little) we understand through the means of knowledge comes under Idam or this.
There are six means of knowledge.
Pratyaksha or Perception.
Anumāna or Inference.
Upamāna or Comparison.
Arthāpatti or Postulation.
Anupalabhdhi or Non-comprehension.
Shabda or words from a trust worthy source (sāstram or Āpta vākya or from a trustworthy person).

All the five elements, Jnanendriyas, Karmendriyas, Antahkaranam and all the fourteen lokās and all the things that can be known by logic and all the knowledge obtained by the six means of knowledge comes under the word,”Idam or this”.

This is the Idam word in the sentence (chandogyaopanishad),” “Sad eva, soumya, idam agra asid ekam evadvitiyam”.

In Gurusmaranam,
Posts: 10
Joined: Tue Jun 07, 2016 3:29 am

Re: Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Postby Dharmavaram » Sun Aug 21, 2016 9:02 pm

Harih Om!
Pujya Swamiji explained the verses 19,20&21.
Pujya Swamiji explained in detail about the six means of knowledge.

The verse 19 is explained as follows.
Idam sarvam means the entire universe (both visible and invisible) (explained elaborately from verse 2 to verse 18).
Purā sriste means before creation.
Ekam Eva Adviteeyam means one, one only and nondual.
(Ekam means one of uniform in nature.
Eva means nothing similar like that.
Adviteeyam means nothing dissimilar from that).
Sadeva Āseeth means (the universe) was existent in the form of pure existence.
Naamaroopa Na Aasthaa means the existence was there without association with any naama&roopa. (Without name&form).
Iti Ārune vachaha means this is the statement of Āruni. (This is the statement of Uddalaka rishi who is the son of the Aruna rishi).
Before creation all this was one, one only and non-dual pure existence. There was neither name nor form. This is the statement of Āruni rishi.

The question comes when all the three words (Ekam, Eva &Adviteeyam) mean the same, then what is the significance of repeating the same idea by the Upanishad. The reason is explained in the next verses.

The verses 20&21 are explained as follows.
Every object in the world is associated with three types of differences. They are:
Svagatha Bheda: Differences within itself or within the same object.
Sajaatheeya Bheda: Differences within the objects of the same kind or differences within the same species.
Vijaateeya Bheda: Differences between objects of the different kind or differences between different species.

For example, within the tree there are internal differences like root, leaves, flowers, fruits etc. This is called Svagatha Bheda.
One tree is different from the other tree even though both come under the classification of trees only. Mango tree is different from Neem tree. This is called Sajaatiya Bheda.
The difference between two different species or different kinds. The difference between a tree and a stone. This is called Vijaateeya Bheda.

As we are used to see the three fold differences in every object of the world we may feel that the same differences are possible even in the sadvastu or the Reality. This assumed difference is negated or dismissed by the Upanishad by using the words Ekam, Eva, Adviteeyam.

In the verse 21, in the second line,
Aikya means Ekatha or Ekam or Oneness or Uniformly one. This word dismisses the Svagatha Bheda.
Avadhaarana means Emphasis or one only or Eva. This word dismisses the Sajaateeya Bheda.
Dvaita Pratishedha means denying of duality or Adviteeyam. This word dismisses the Vijaateeya Bheda.
By these three meaningful words, the three differences are dismissed respectively.In this way,Pujya Vidyaranyaji explains the Upanishad statement in one sloka.

In Gurusmaranam,
Posts: 10
Joined: Tue Jun 07, 2016 3:29 am

Re: Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Postby Dharmavaram » Thu Aug 25, 2016 1:41 am

Harih Om!

Pujya Swamiji explained slokas 22,23.
The three differences (Svagata, Sajaateeya&Vijaateeya Bheda) can be divided under two groups.
Internal difference or Svagata Bheda.
Sajaatiya&Vijaatiya Bheda comes under External differences.
From this sloka onwards, Pujya Vidyaranyaji proves the absence of the above said three differences in the Reality or Brahman.

In 22&23 slokas the Svagata Bheda is negated.

One should not doubt the presence of parts in the Brahman. Brahman cannot have internal differences or Svagata Bheda as there are no parts or Avayava in Brahman.
It is not possible to establish parts in Brahman. To establish something one should have means of knowledge or pramaana.
The Shabda pramaana says Brahman is Akhanda or partless.
The Pratyaksha Pramaana cannot prove Brahman (the Brahman has no shabda, sparsha, rupa, rasa&gandha), as Brahman cannot become the object of senses.
The Anumaana Pramaana is based on Pratyaksha Pramaana. Perception forms the basis of Anumaana. (Logical deduction of fire whenever we see smoke).
Upamaana Pramaana is also based on Pratyaksha.From Upamaana Pramaana one gains the knowledge of similarity between two things by perception of one of the things. (Similarity between wolf and bison, by seeing the wolf).
Arthapatti is also based on perception. (Devadatta becoming fat).
Anupalabhdi is not permissible as Brahman is always available.
So, there is no proof for Brahman having any parts in any Pramaanam.

The various existences like watch, kerchief etc. cannot be taken as parts of Brahman. Really speaking, those objects are not there. It is explained as follows.
Whatever is seen is inert. Whatever inert or jadam is perishable. Whatever is perishable is false or temporary or ephemeral or mithya.
Naama and roopa cannot be parts of Brahman as they are false or mithya.
Any name and form in the world is only an appearance without independent existence. In other words, naama and roopa has dependent existence. Mithya has no independent existence and does not remain same all the time.

That remains unfalsified and same in all the three periods of time is Sat or Brahman. Trikaala Abhaaditam Sat.

Here we are talking about the situation before origination of creation. Naama and roopa were absent before creation. Therefore, how can naama and roopa can become part of Brahman? The appearance of names and forms in the Reality is creation.
Pujya Swamiji quoted the sloka from Drigdrisya Viveka.
Sristirnāma brahmarūpe sacchidānandavastuni//Abhdau phenādivat sarvanāmarūpaprasāranā.

Space is taken as the example to show Brahman is partless. Space does not have any parts and does not have any internal differences.

With respect to parts only Svagata Bheda exist. Brahman or pure Existence is partless and there is no Svagata Bheda.
Thus Svagata Bheda or internal differences is negated in Brahman or Reality.

In Gurusmaranam,
Posts: 10
Joined: Tue Jun 07, 2016 3:29 am

Re: Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Postby Dharmavaram » Sun Aug 28, 2016 2:21 am

Harih Om!
Pujya Swamiji summarized the slokas 22&23 as follows.
1.It is impossible to establish parts in Sat as no pramaana can prove parts in Sat.
2.The Nama&rupa cannot be taken as avayava or parts as they do not have reality.
Yaddrisyam Tajjadam –Whatever is perceived it is inert or jadam.
Yajjadam Tannaswaram-Anything jadam is perishable.
Yannaswaram Tanmithya-Whatever is perishable it is false.
Yanmithya Tadasat-Whatver is false it is nonexistent.
The above understanding plays a very important part in the teaching of Vedanta.
False is that which appears but it is not truly there. Even when we can see it (mirage water) we can invalidate its presence. The purpose of the knowledge or intellect is to discount the presence of false (mirage etc.) even while seeing it.
3. Sat is talked before creation. Before creation Sat alone is there. The creation is expansion of Nama, rupa.

The Verse 24 is explained as follows.
Sajaateeya Bheda is negated in this verse. Sajaateeya Bheda is denied using the word,“ Eva”.
Sajaateeya Bheda is difference in the objects of same species.
Sat is existence. Another species of Existence is not there. There are no two Sat. It is not possible to imagine or conceptualize another Sat.
Existence is not a quality or property of any object. Existence is attribute less.
For example, Red color can be brighter or lesser. Temperature can be high or low. There are no such concepts in Sat. Existence does not have any attribute bheda.
Then what about various kinds of existences we see? (Like katori, kerchief, bookmark etc.). Pujya Vidyaranyaji says, such kind of differences in the existence is not possible to think of without difference in Upaadhi or conditionings. Upaadhi means staying near, it helps us to differentiate one thing from the other.
Examples are pot space, room space etc. Pot is upaadhi. Room is upaadhi. Neither pot nor room is intrinsic to space. They help us to have the concept of space pertaining to that respective object. With different Upaadhis space appears many in number. The pot and the room, which cause seeming differences in the space, are called Upaadhi.
These differences in the existence cannot be conceived without differences in upaadhi. Upaadhi is nothing but naama, rupa. It is only naama, rupa that cause seeming difference in existence. There is no difference at all in the Existence because of seeming upaadhis. Naama, rupa are false as explained before. The illusory naama, rupa cannot make differences in the Existence.
To summarise, there is no Sajaateeya bheda in Sat as naama, rupa are not really there. Even if we take naama, rupa they are only upaadhi.
Pujya Swamiji explained two pairs of terms used in Vedanta.
Viseshana means qualifier. Viseshya is qualified or qualificund.
Upaadhi is delimiter or conditioning.
Upahita means delimited or conditioned.
The examples given below explain them further.
1.Pujya Swamiji gave the examples of three kerchiefs (to explain the qualifier &qualified) having three different colors like peach, white, blue respectively. The purpose of the color (qualifier) is to differentiate one kerchief from the other. In this example, the differentiator or qualifier or Viseshana (color) entered intrinsically into the qualified or differentiated or Viseshya (kerchief) to differentiate one kerchief from the other.
2.Pujya Swamiji explained the Upaadhi&Upahita with the following example.
The katori and the tumbler are taken as examples. Katori&the tumbler are the Upaadhis.The space enclosed by the katori&the tumbler is called Upahita. Unlike the above example, katori& tumbler do not enter into space. Upadhi does not enter into Upahita and upaadhi serves to differentiate one upahita from the other. Each of the tumbler and katori differentiate their respective spaces.
Differentiator or Bheda janaka can be of two types.
1.Viseshana: enters into Viseshya.It is called as intrinsic differentiator.
2.Upaadhi: does not enter into Upahita. It is called as extrinsic differentiator.
Naama, rupa can function as only Upaadhi.They cannot enter into Upahita that is Existence. As they do not enter into Existence, they cannot make any differences in the Existence. They are extrinsic and they cause no change in Existence whatsoever.
So, there is no Sajaateeya Bheda in the Existence.

In Gurusmaranam,
Posts: 10
Joined: Tue Jun 07, 2016 3:29 am

Re: Pancha Bhūta Viveka Prakaranam

Postby Dharmavaram » Wed Sep 28, 2016 7:41 am

Harih Om!
Pujya Swamiji explained the slokas 25&26 as follows. Pujya Swamiji explained that Upadhi does not permeate yet distinguishes.
In Verse 25, Vijaatiya bheda (in the Sat or Brahman) is negated.
(by the word Adviteeya).Vijaatiya Bheda is the difference between two different species. Vijaatiya bheda is possible when there is something apart from Sat.Vijaatiya to Sat is that which is not Sat. Sat means Existence.Vijaatiya to existence is Non existence. Vijaatiya to Sat is Asat.Asat cannot create a difference or vijaatiya bhedam in Sat. In this sloka Pujya Vidyaranyaji mentioned the word Pratiyogi.Whenever we talk about difference in something, we need the presence of something else from which this something is different. Any difference always requires a reference point. Therefore it is a relative expression. For example there is a watch on the table. There is a relationship of contact between the watch and the table. The locus or table is called Anuyogi. The watch is called Pratiyogi. If Sat is to have Vijaatiya bheda pratiyogi it should be other than Sat. So, if Sat is to have Vijaatiya bheda pratiyogi, it should be Asat.Asat cannot function as Pratiyogi. Asat cannot exist in a manner where in we can compare Sat with Asat.We cannot establish a relationship of difference between Sat and Asat.It is not possible as Asat is absence. We cannot compare presence with absence, as absence is absent. Asat means non-existence. A non-existent pratiyogi cannot create a difference in Sat. It is impossible to distinguish Sat from Asat, as Asat is not there. How can you talk about the Vijaatiya bheda for Sat? It is not possible.
So, the Sat is Vijaatiya bheda rahitam.

The verse 26 is explained as follows.
Pujya Swamiji explained the term, “Sthoona nikhanana nyaya”. If one wants to place a pillar in the ground, one digs the ground and makes a pit, keep the pole in the pit and fill the pit with mud. To check whether the pole (sthoona) is stable or not, one shakes (nikhanana) the pole.
Similarly, our understanding of Sat is shaken to show how well we understood Sat. The Buddhists school does this shaking. Buddhism is divided into four main groups. They are Vaibhaashika, Sautrantika, Yogacharya &Madhyamika. The Madhyamika Buddhists are also called Sunyavaadins.
Advaitins say Existence alone was and Existence alone is.
Sunyavaadins say Non Existence alone was and Non Existence alone is.
We have established Existence as ekam, eva, adviteeyam. Existence alone is. In this regard, some confused people without mature intellect or no proper logical thinking are saying in the beginning Asat or Non Existence alone was there.
Non-existence is a contradictory statement as cause permeates the effect in and through. The easy way to discover the cause is to look at the effect. The world of names and forms is permeated by Existence. How can the cause of world be Non Existence? Even though the Nama&rupa are false, anything false is dependent on Truth.
The reason for the above confusion is explained in the next verse. (Verse 27).

In Gurusmaranam,
Posts: 10
Joined: Tue Jun 07, 2016 3:29 am

Return to Panchadasi

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users