Hari Om. Pranam.
Here are the verses 27-29 for our discussion. Please post your thoughts,
your study notes, reflections on these verses.
Offering this garland of verses to you O Krishna with Love from all of
us...please help us in our studies.
स्पर्शांकृत्वा बहिर्बाह्यांश्र्चक्षुश्रचैवान्तरे भ्रुवो: ।
प्राणापानौ समौ कृत्वा नासाभ्यान्तरचारिणौ ॥२७॥
स्पर्शान् कृत्वा बहि: बाह्यान् चक्षु: च एव अन्तरे भ्रवो: प्राण अपानौ समौ कृत्वा नासाभि अन्तर चारिणौ
sparasan-krtva bahi-bahyams caksus caivantare bhruvoh
prana-panau samau krtva nasa-bhyantara-carinau
sparasan - contacts, krtva - rendering, shutting out, bahih - outside, bahyan - external, caksuh -eye ( gaze), ca- and, eva- evven, antare - in the middle, bhruvoh - of the (two) eyebrows, prana-apanau - the outgoing and incoming breaths, samau - equal, krtva- having made, nasabhi-antara-carinau - moving inside the nostrils.
Shutting out ( all) external contacts and fixinng the gaze ( as though) between the eye-brows, equalising the outgoinng and incoming breath moving within the nostrils..
विगतेच्छाभयक्रोधो य: सदा मुक्त एव स: ।।२८॥
यतेन्द्रिय मनो बुद्धि: मुनि: मोक्ष परायण: विगत इच्छा भय क्रोध: य: सदा मुक्त: एव स:
vigateccha-bhaya-krodho yah sada mukta eva sah
yatendriya-mano-buddhih - with senses, mind and intellect(ever) controlled; munih - the sage; moksa-parayanah - having liberation as his supreme goal; vigata-iccha-bhaya-krodhah - free from desire, fear and anger; yah - who; sada- for ever; muktah - free; eva- verily; sah - he.
With senses, mind and intellect ( ever) controlled, having liberation as his Supreme Goal, free from desire, fear and anger- the sage is verily liberated for ever.
भोक्तारं यज्ञतपसां सर्वलोकमहेश्वरं ।
सुहृदं सर्वभूतानां ज्ञात्वा मां शान्तिमृच्छति ।।२९॥
भोक्तारं यज्ञ तपसां सर्व लोक महेश्वरं सहृदम् सर्व भूतानां ज्ञात्वा माम् शान्तिम् ऋच्छति
BHOKTARAM YAJNATAPASAM SARVALOKAMAHASWARAM
SUHREDAM SARVABHUTANAM JNATVA MAM SANTIMRECHATI.
mam-me; yajnatapasam-of all sacrifices and activities;
sarvalokamahaswaram-the supreme lord of all the worlds;
sarvabhutanam-of all beings; suhredam-the disinterested frient;
jnatva-having known; santim-peace; mrechati-attains.
Having known me in reality as the enjoyer of all sacrifices and austirities, the supreme lord of all the worlds, and the
disinterested friend of all beings, my devotee attains peace.
Thoughts and Concepts
19 Which are the two aphoristic stanzas in the fifth chapter that give the summary of the entire sixth chapter?
Sparsankrtva bahirbahyamscaksuscaivantare bhruvoh
Pranapanau samau krtva nasabhyantaracarinau
Shutting out (all) external contacts and fixing the gaze ( as though) between the eyebrows, equalizing the outgoing and incoming breath moving within the nostrils
Vigatecchabhayakrodho yah sada mukta eva sah.
With senses, mind and intellect ( ever) controlled, having Liberation as his Supreme Goal, free from desire, fear and anger-the sage is verily liberated for ever.
The above two verses give the summary of the entire sixth chapter. ( 5.27,28)
20 What is the relationship between desire, fear and anger?
There is an intimate relationship between desire, fear and anger. “ Desire” is that pattern of thought in which the mind runs constantly towards a given object with an anxious expectation of procuring and possessing it. Where there is desire, there we come to experience “fear”. And it is very well known that when we desire a thing so much as to live ever in the fear of losing it, maddening “ anger” can exhibit itself at any moment against any threat of an obstacle between ourselves and our object of desire. When these three emotions – desire,fear and anger – are controlled, we have controlled almost all the mad impulses of our intellect. ( 5.28)
21) When does one discover the necessary tranquility to start meditation?
The external world of objects cannot by itself bring any disturbance to any one of us. It is only when we are in contact with the world of objects that we suffer. So long as we are standing on the bank of a river or on the seashore, the waves cannot buffet us. It is only when we are in contact with them that we will be tossed hither and thither. Forms , sounds , tastes , smells and touches constantly bring their objects to agitate the mind, but we get agitated by them only when we identify with our mental conditions. If we, therefore, shut out the external objects- not by physical methods such as plugging the ears, but by a discreet intellectual detachment from our mental reactions to the external world of objects – we shall discover in ourselves the necessary tranquility to start meditation. ( 5.28).
22. Explain the significance of Shri Krishna advising the meditator to fix his gaze between the eyebrows.
It is a great mistake that seekers often take the instruction of fixing the gaze between eyebrows too literally. they converge their eyeballs and gaze towards the space between the eyebrows for the purpose of meditation. This is not what it meant, though it faithfully follows the instruction laid down here. It is to be understood as Adi Shankara says, " to gaze as it were towards the point between the two eyebrows." It is psychologically very true that when we are looking " as it were towards the brow", our gaze would be turned upward at about forty five degrees to the vertical backbone. In that attitude of upward gaze, the human mind is held uplifted and it becomes the right vehicle for higher contemplation. (5.28)
23. Why does Shri Krishna advise the mdeitator to make the flow of breath even?
There is an intimate relationship between the rethym of the flow of breath in us and our own mental conditions. The more agitated the mind is the more spasmodic and uncertain becomes the rythm of our breathing. Therefore, the instructions here to control one's breath flow and make it even becomes a conducive physical practice of coaxing the mind to become relatively quiet. (5.28)
24. What does the term "tapas" mean?
"Tapas" includes all practices of self denial and self control which the ego undertakes in order to integrate and revive its own capacities to seek the real identity with the Eternal. (5.29)
25) Why is the Self termed “ Sarva-loka-mahesvara”?
The Self is certainly the “ Mahesvara” – The Lord of all lords, the God of all gods. Here “ Isvara” is to be understood as the controller of all fields of activities of perception and action. Each field of activity is presided over by various faculties , and these faculties are termed “ devas” , meaning “ illuminators”. The faculty of seeing illumines the field of eyes and thus gives the knowledge of forms and colours; the faculty of hearing illumines the field of the ears and thus provides the knowledge of sound and so on. The Self is in fact the Lord of all these individual lords governing, controlling and ruling over the various fields. Therefore , the term “ Sarva- loka-mahesvara” is used as an appeallation for the Self. ( 5.29).
26) Who attains peace?
Bhoktaram yajnatapasam sarvalokamahesvaram,
Suhrdam sarvabhutanam jnatva mam santimrcchati.
He attains peace who knows Me as the enjoyer of sacrifices and austerities, the Great Lord of all worlds and the friend of all beings. ( 5.29)